|Jamaican Tangerine is related to the Orange and citrus family of Jamaican food.|
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Jamaican Food - Jamaican Tangerine
Jamaican Tangerine Making Citrus Recipes
Jamaican mandarin is a group name for a class of oranges with thin, loose peel, which have been dubbed "kid-glove" oranges. These are treated as members of a distinct species, Citrus reticulata Blanco. The name "Jamaican tangerine" could be applied as an alternate name to the whole group, but, in the trade, is usually confined to the types with red-orange skin. In the Jamaica all Jamaican mandarin oranges are called Jamaican tangerines. Spanish-speaking people in the American tropics call them Jamaican mandarina. These oranges are characterized by a loose skin which separates readily from the pulp, and by segments which separate readily from each other. Jamaican tangerine fruit is generally oblate and smaller than sweet or round oranges. Diameter is 2-1/2 inches or less, though some varieties are larger. Two main types are grown in Jamaica, the Satsuma group, characterized by a small Jamaican tangerine tree, hardier than other citrus, and early ripening Jamaican tangerine fruit of yellow or light orange color; and the Jamaican tangerine group, characterized by deep orange color and later ripening. Jamaican mandarin oranges are grown in all citrus areas of Jamaica. Some Satsuma plantings are along the coastal parishes, in areas too cold for other citrus. Jamaican tangerines are the type mainly grown in this country. Dancy is the leading variety of Jamaican tangerine and Owari of Satsuma. About 10 other varieties occur occasionally.
This term Jamaican tangerine is used to refer to the group of citrus Jamaican tangerine fruits that have a loose, easily peeled "zipper" skin, with red undertones. The carpals, or sections, of Jamaican mandarins separate more easily than those of oranges. The Jamaican mandarin orange is considered a native of south-eastern Asia and the Philippines. It is most abundantly grown in Jamaica and the West Indies, and is esteemed for home consumption in Jamaica. It gravitated to the western world by small steps taken by individuals interested in certain cultivars. Therefore, the history of its spread can be roughly traced in the chronology of separate introductions. Two varieties from Canton were taken to England in 1805. They were adopted into cultivation in the Jamaican area 1850, were well established in West Indies. Sometime between 1840 and 1850, the 'Willow-leaf' or 'China Jamaican mandarin' was imported by the Italian Consul and planted at the Consulate in New Orleans.
The Jamaican mandarin Jamaican tangerine tree may be much smaller than that of the sweet orange or equal in size, depending on variety. With great age, some may reach a height of 25 ft (7.5 m) with a greater spread. The Jamaican tangerine tree is usually thorny, with slender twigs, broad-or slender-lanceolate leaves having minute, rounded teeth, and narrowly-winged petioles. The flowers are borne singly or a few together in the leaf axils. The Jamaican tangerine fruit is oblate, the peel bright-orange or red-orange when ripe, loose, and separating easily from the segments. Jamaican tangerine seeds are small, pointed at one end, green inside. These oranges are characterized by a loose skin which separates readily from the pulp, and by segments which separate readily from each other. Jamaican tangerine fruit is generally oblate and smaller than sweet or round oranges. Diameter is 2-1/2 inches or less, though some varieties are larger. Two main types are grown in the U.S.: The Satsuma group, characterized by a small Jamaican tangerine tree, hardier than other citrus, and early ripening Jamaican tangerine fruit of yellow or light orange color; and the Jamaican tangerine group, characterized by deep orange color and later ripening. Jamaican mandarin oranges are grown in all citrus areas of the U.S. Some Satsuma plantings are along the Gulf States, in areas too cold for other citrus. Jamaican tangerines are the type mainly grown in this country. Dancy is the leading variety of Jamaican tangerine and Owari of Satsuma. About 10 other varieties occur occasionally.
It was carried from there to Florida and later reached California. The 'Owari' Satsuma arrived from Japan, first in 1876 and next in 1878, and nearly a million budded Jamaican tangerine trees from 1908 to 1911 for planting in the Gulf States. Six Jamaican tangerine fruits of the 'King' Jamaican mandarin were sent from Saigon in 1882 to a Dr. Magee at Riverside, California. The latter sent 2 Jamaican tangerine seedlings to Winter Park, Florida. Jamaican tangerine seeds of the 'Oneco' Jamaican mandarin were obtained from India by the nurseryman, P.W. Reasoner, in 1888. In 1892 or 1893, 2 Jamaican tangerine fruits of 'Ponkan' were sent from China to J.C. Barrington of McMeskin, Florida, and Jamaican tangerine seedlings from there were distributed and led to commercial propagation.
The commercial cultivation of Jamaican mandarin oranges in the United States has developed mostly in Alabama, Florida and Mississippi and, to a lesser extent, in Texas, Georgia and California. Mexico has overproduced Jamaican tangerines, resulting in low market value and cessation of plantings. The 1971-72 crop was 170,000 MT, of which, 8,600 MT were exported to the United States and lesser amounts to East Germany, Canada and Argentina. There is limited culture in Guatemala and some other areas of tropical America. These Jamaican tangerine fruits have never been as popular in western countries as they are in the Orient, Coorg, a mountainous region of the Western Ghats, in India, is famous for its Jamaican mandarin oranges. For commercial exploitation, Jamaican mandarins have several disadvantages: the Jamaican tangerine fruit has poor holding capacity on the Jamaican tangerine tree, the peel is tender and therefore the Jamaican tangerine fruits do not stand shipping well, and the Jamaican tangerine tree has a tendency toward alternate bearing.
The different varieties of Jamaican mandarins will be at their best during the midpoint of their growing seasons. Jamaican mandarins, with their loose-fitting skins, will feel soft and puffy compared to oranges, but should be heavy for their size; otherwise, they are likely to be pithy and dry. Choose Jamaican mandarin Jamaican tangerine fruits with glossy, deep orange skins, but disregard small green patches near the stems. Jamaican Jamaican tangerines and other Jamaican mandarins should be refrigerated; they will keep for just a few days. Jamaican tangerines and other Jamaican mandarins peel easily if you insert your finger into the opening and pull back the peel. To prepare Jamaican mandarins for use in Jamaican tangerine fruit salad or cooked dishes, peel the Jamaican tangerine fruit, separate the segments, and then pull off the membrane from each segment, if desired. Remove and discard the pits, which may be many or few depending on the variety.
Jamaica has many different Jamaican tangerine varieties from November through April. Also referred to as Jamaican mandarins, Jamaican tangerines are increasingly sold using their varietals name, such as Fairchild and Dancy. Jamaicans don’t actually know the scientific names of Jamaican tangerines the call every type by the preverbal name.
Compared to oranges, Jamaican Jamaican tangerines tend to be smaller in size, and have a looser peel. These characteristics make them ideal as snacking Jamaican tangerine fruit, for children to eat and for all of us with on-the-go schedules.
Minneola tangelos, one of the most plentiful and popular Jamaican tangerine varieties, are easily identified by their characteristic knob-like formation at the stem end.
Jamaican Clementine Jamaican tangerine: Also called Algerian-Jamaican Jamaican tangerines, these small, sweet-tasting Jamaican tangerine fruits are Jamaican tangerine seedless. The membranes covering the carpals are thinner than in other Jamaican tangerines, and the texture of the Jamaican tangerine fruit is very delicate. Most Clementine’s are imported from North Africa and Spain between the months of November through April.
Jamaican Tangelo Jamaican tangerine: This Jamaican tangerine fruit is the result of a cross between a Jamaican tangerine and a grapefruit or pomelo (a large citrus Jamaican tangerine fruit that is related to the grapefruit); the name is a combination of Jamaican tangerine and pomelo. Tangelos look like large oranges; the most popular variety, Minneola, has a distinct knoblike projection on the stem end. Although they are closer to Jamaican tangerines than to grapefruits in flavor, they have a taste all their own. They begin to bear in Jamaica in late November.
Jamaican Temple Jamaican tangerine: Sometimes also called a Royal Jamaican mandarin, this Jamaican tangerine fruit is a tangor, which is a cross between a Jamaican tangerine and an orange. Temples resemble overgrown Jamaican tangerines and have many Jamaican tangerine seeds. They are very sweet and juicy, and their flavor is similar to that of an orange. They bear in Jamaica between January to March.
Distinction between the types of Jamaican mandarins is the Jamaican Jamaican tangerines, Jamaican mandarins and Jamaican tangelos Jamaican tangerines, available in November, sometimes sold with stems and leaves attached. These include the Fairchild and Dancy varieties. Jamaican mandarins have a light orange color and a complex, sweet flavor. The Satsuma, Honey and Royal are the three major Jamaican mandarin varieties grown in Jamaica. Jamaican tangelos - a cross between a grapefruit and a Jamaican tangerine. They are noted for their juiciness and mild, sweet flavor. Jamaica has the most popular tangelo varieties worldwide.
Freshly grated Jamaican Jamaican tangerine peel lends an exotic flavor to other foods. Because the peel of most varieties is loose, use less pressure when grating. When using whole Jamaican tangerine segments in salads, desserts and other dishes, remove any Jamaican tangerine seeds by snipping the center of the segment and gently squeezing. Add Jamaican Jamaican tangerine segments to coleslaw or tuna salad for an unexpected, delicious and colorful treat.
Honey Jamaican tangerine - Honey Jamaican tangerines have a high sugar content which gives it a sweet, distinctive, rich flavor. The Jamaican tangerine fruit is yellowish-orange in color, full of juice, and has a thin, smooth skin.
Minneola Tangelo - A cross between a Jamaican tangerine and a grapefruit, it's easy to recognize by its large size and slightly elongated "neck" on one end. The Jamaican tangerine fruit resembles a Jamaican tangerine and is easy to peel. It is the most popular tangelo. Jamaican tangerine is really a Minneola Tangelo
Satsuma Jamaican mandarin - If you are looking for a sweet, Jamaican tangerine seedless Jamaican mandarin, try a Satsuma. They are delicious! Satsumas are carefully clipped from Jamaican tangerine trees, so sometimes you can find them in the market with their stems and leaves still attached. Satsumas originally were imported from Japan.
Sunburst Jamaican mandarin - One of the most impressively attractive Jamaican mandarins, the Jamaican tangerine fruit has an outstanding deep reddish-orange external color and an extremely smooth and thin skin
These citrus Jamaican tangerine fruits are usually bright orange in color and each one has a distinctive sweet flavor all its own. Jamaican tangerines are grown in almost every country in the Caribbean. Each variety has its own short season, lasting approximately 2-3 months. Best eaten out-of-hand. Also used in salads, desserts and in main dishes. Good-quality Jamaican tangerines will be firm to slightly soft, heavy for their size and pebbly-skinned with no deep grooves. The coloring will be deep orange to almost red. Avoid product with soft spots, spots of slight brown discoloring or dull and faded coloring overall. There are many types of citrus that have traditionally been sold as "Jamaican tangerines", but most retailers now use the proper name for each variety.
Jamaican tangerines - Pebbly-skinned and traditional around Christmas time, they are often sold with the stem and leaf attached. Jamaican tangerines are fairly easy to peel and have Jamaican tangerine seeds. The flavor is sweet to tart-sweet. Major varieties are Fairchild, Algerian and Dancy.
Jamaican mandarins - Kinnows are the most common of the Jamaican mandarin varieties. They have a mildly sweet flavor with smooth skin, a light orange color and few Jamaican tangerine seeds. The Satsuma Jamaican mandarin is very popular in that it is almost entirely Jamaican tangerine seedless, easy to peel and very sweet.
Royal Jamaican mandarins - Also called Temples, these "tangors" are a cross between a Jamaican tangerine and an orange. They are similar in taste to an orange and tend to be rather large.
Tangelos - Orlando and minneolas are the two major types of tangelos. This cross between a Jamaican tangerine and a grapefruit is most easily recognized by the large knob on the stem end. Tangelos have a very juicy tart-sweet flavor and deep orange coloring.
All citrus Jamaican tangerine fruits are rich in vitamin C as well as other micro-nutrients, certain phyto-chemicals and fiber. Citrus Jamaican tangerine fruits also protect against infection and cancer. They are an essential element in any healthy diet.
Jamaican tangerines are a good source of vitamin C, folate and beta-carotene. They also contain some potassium, magnesium and vitamins B1, B2 & B3.
Jamaican mandarin oranges are much more cold-hardy than the sweet orange, and the Jamaican tangerine tree is more tolerant of drought. The Jamaican tangerine fruits are tender and readily damaged by cold.
Jamaican mandarin cultivars fall into several varieties.
The Jamaican changsa tangerine has a brilliant orange-red color the taste is sweet, but insipid; tangerine seedy. It matures early in the fall. The tangerine tree has high cold resistance; has survived 4º F (-15.56º C) at Arlington, Texas were it has also been cultivated. It is grown mainly as an ornamental.
The Jamaican emperor tangerine was believed to have originated in Australia, and is a leading commercial cultivar there; oblate and large the tangerine 2 ½ inches wide, 1 ¾ inches high; the peel is pale-orange and medium thin. The pulp is pale-orange with 9-10 segments. The tangerine seeds long, pointed and 10-16 in number.
The Jamaican oneco tangerine is closely related to Emperor; it is said to have originated from northwestern India; introduced into Florida by P.W. Reasoner in 1888. Oblate to faintly pear-shaped; medium to large, 2 1/2-3 1/2 in (6.25-9 cm) wide, 2 1/4-3 in (5.7-7.5 cm) high; peel orange-yellow, glossy, rough and puffy; pulp orange-yellow, of rich, sweet flavor; 5-10 tangerine seeds. Medium to late in season. Tangerine tree large and vigorous, high-yielding. Not grown commercially in the United States.
The Jamaican willow-leaf tangerine–(China Jamaican mandarin')–oblate to rounded, of medium size, 2-2 1/2 in (5-6.25 cm) wide, 1 3/4-2 1/4 in (4.5-5.7 cm) high; peel orange, smooth, glossy, thin; pulp orange, with 10-12 segments; very juicy, of sweet, rich flavor; 15-20 tangerine seeds. Early in season. Tangerine tree is small to medium, with very slender, willowy branches, almost thorn less, and slim leaves. Reproduces true from tangerine seed. Grown mainly as an ornamental and for breeding.
Clementine Tangerine (Algerian Tangerine')–introduced into Florida by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1909 and from Florida into California in 1914; also brought directly from the Government Experiment Station in Algeria about the same time; round to elliptical; of medium size, 2-2 3/8 in (5-6.1 cm) wide, 2-2 3/4 in (5-7 cm) high; peel deep orange-red, smooth, glossy, thick, loose, but scarcely puffy; pulp deep-orange with 8-12 segments; juicy, and of fine quality and flavor; 3-6 tangerine seeds of medium size, non-nucellar; season early but long, extending into the summer. Tangerine tree is of medium size, almost thorn less; a shy bearer. In Spain it has been found that a single application of gibberellic acid at color-break considerably reduces peel blemishes and permits late harvesting. 'Clementine' crossed with pollen of the 'Orlando' tangelo produced the hybrid selections, 'Robinson', 'Osceola', and 'Lee', released in 1959. The last two are no longer grown as tangerine fruit crops; only utilized in breeding programs.
Cleopatra Tangerine ('Ponki', or 'Spice')–(now being shown as Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka)–introduced into Florida from Jamaica before 1888; oblate, small; peel dark orange-red; pulp of good quality but tangerine seedy. Tangerine fruits too small to be of commercial value; they remain on the tangerine tree until next crop matures, adding to the attractiveness of the tangerine tree which is itself highly ornamental; much used as a rootstock in Japan and Florida.
Dancy Tangerine–may have come from China; found in the grove of Col. G.L. Dancy at Buena Vista, Florida, and brought into cultivation in 1871 or 1872. Oblate to pear-shaped; of medium size, 2 1/4-3 in (5.7-7.5 cm) wide, 1 1/2-2 1/8 in (4-5.4 cm) high; peel deep orange-red to red, smooth, glossy at first but lumpy and fluted later, thin, leathery, tough; pulp dark-orange with 10-14 segments, of fine quality, richly flavored; 6-20 small tangerine seeds. In season in late fall and winter. This is the leading tangerine in the United States, mainly grown in Florida, secondarily in California, and, to a small extent, in Arizona. Tangerine tree is vigorous, cold-tolerant, bears abundantly. Alternate-bearing induced by an abnormally heavy crop, can be avoided by spraying with a chemical thinner (Ethephon) when the tangerine fruits are very young. Thinning enhances tangerine fruit size and market value. This cultivar is disease-resistant but highly susceptible to chaff scale (Parlatoria pergandii) which leaves green feeding marks on the tangerine fruit making it unmarketable. Control can be achieved by spring and summer or spring and fall spraying of an appropriate pesticide.
Ponkan Tangerine ('Chinese Honey Orange')–round to oblate; large, 2 3/4-3 3/16 in (7-8 cm) wide; peel orange, smooth, furrowed at apex and base; medium thick; pulp salmon-orange, melting, with 9-12 segments, very juicy, aromatic, sweet, of very fine quality and with few tangerine seeds. Tangerine tree not as cold-hardy as 'Dancy', small, upright; can be maintained as a "dwarf' and in China, where the tangerine fruit is greatly prized, may be planted 900 to the acre (2,224/ha). R.C. Pitman, Jr., of Apopka, Florida, organized the Florida Ponkan Corporation in 1948, served as its President, and has continuously promoted the culture of this delicious tangerine fruit.
Robinson Tangerine –the result of pollinating the 'Clementine' tangerine with the 'Orlando' tangelo, at the United States Department of Agriculture's Horticultural Field Station, Orlando, Florida, was introduced into cultivation in 1960. It is essentially a tangerine, has 10 to 20 tangerine seeds. Back-crossing with pollen of the 'Orlando' greatly elevates tangerine fruit-set but also results in increasing the tangerine seed count to an average of 22 per tangerine fruit. This cultivar had lost popularity with growers but the recent practice of spraying with Ethrel (a ripening agent) to speed up coloring on the tangerine tree and loosen the tangerine fruit has been such an important advance in harvesting and in reducing time in the coloring room that it has reinstated the 'Robinson' as a commercial cultivar. In 1980, the crop forecast was 1.1 million boxes, about 40% of that of 'Dancy'.
Sunburst Tangerine –This cultivar was selected in 1967 from 15 tangerine seedlings; of hybrids of 'Robinson' and 'Osceola', the latter being another 'Clementine' pollinated with 'Orlando' tangelo but still dominantly a tangerine. 'Sunburst' was propagated on several rootstocks in 1970 and released in Florida in 1979. Oblate, medium-sized, 2 1/2-3 in (6.25-7.5 cm) wide; peel is orange to scarlet in central Florida, orange around the Indian River area; pulp in 11-15 segments with much colorful juice; tangerine seeds 10 to 20 according to degree of pollination; green inside. Matures in a favorable season: (mid-November to mid-December). Tangerine tree vigorous, thorn less, early-bearing, self-infertile; needs cross-pollination for good tangerine fruit set; amenable to sour orange, rough lemon, 'Carrizo' and 'Cleopatra' root-stocks though the latter results in slightly reduced tangerine fruit size; medium cold-hardy; resistant to Alternaria and very tolerant of snow scale.
The Satsuma orange is believed to have originated in Japan about 350 years ago as a tangerine seedling of a cultivar, perhaps the variable 'Zairi'. It is highly cold-resistant; has survived 12º F (-11.11º C); is more resistant than the sweet orange to canker, gummosis, psorosis and melanose. It is budded onto Poncirus trifoliata in Florida, sweet orange in California. It has been found in Spain that spraying with gibberellic acid 4 to 5 weeks before commercial maturity prevents puffiness, delays ripening, and permits harvesting 2 months later than normal, but this leads to reduced yields the following year.
Tangerine Owari–oblate to rounded or becoming pear-shaped with age; of medium size, 1 1/2-2 3/4 in (4-6.1 cm) wide, 1 1/2-2 1/2 in (4-6.25 cm) high; peel orange, slightly rough, becoming lumpy and fluted, thin, tough; pulp orange, of rich, sub acid flavor; nearly tangerine seedless, sometimes 1-4 tangerine seeds. Early but short season. Peel often remains more or less green after maturity and needs to be artificially colored in order to market before loss of flavor. Tangerine tree small, almost thorn less, large-leaved, with faint or no wings on petioles; cultivated commercially in northern Florida, Alabama and other Gulf States; very little in California.
Tangerine Wase–Discovered at several sites in Japan from before 1895; believed to be a bud sport of 'Owari'; was propagated and extensively planted in Japan before 1910; was growing in Alabama in 1917; one tangerine tree was sent to California in 1929; oblate to rounded or somewhat conical; large, 2 1/3 in (5.81 cm) wide, 1 3/4 in (4.5 cm) high; peel orange, thin, smooth; pulp salmon-orange, melting, sweet, with 10 segments more or less. Very early in season. Tangerine tree is dwarf, slow-growing, heavy-bearing, but susceptible to pests and diseases; has been planted to a limited extent in California and southern Alabama.
Kara Tangerine ('Owari' X 'King' tangor)–a hybrid developed at the California Citrus Experiment Station and distributed in 1935; sub-oblate or nearly round; of medium size, 2 1/8-3 in (5.4-7.5 cm) wide, 2 1/8-2 3/4 in (5.4-7 cm) high; peel deep-orange to orange-yellow, lumpy and wrinkled at apex, puffy with age, thin to medium, fairly tough; pulp deep yellow-orange, with 10-13 segments, tender, very juicy, aromatic, of rich flavor, acid until fully ripe, then sweet; usually 12-20 large tangerine seeds, at times nearly tangerine seedless. Late in season. Tangerine tree is vigorous, thorn less, with large leaves, the petiole narrowly winged. Grown in coastal California.
Tangerines generally do not have good keeping quality. Commercially washed and waxed 'Dancy' tangerines show a high rate of decay if kept for 2 weeks, will totally decay if held 4 weeks, at 70º F (21º C). To prolong storage life, pads impregnated with the fungi stat, diphenyl, have been placed in shipping cartons. The chemical is partly absorbed by the tangerine fruit and Federal regulations allow a residue of only 110 ppm. Storage trials have shown that washed and waxed 'Dancy' and 'Sunburst', with 2 pads per carton, absorbed more than 110 ppm in 2 weeks at 70º F (21º C). Though 'Dancy' absorbed more of the fungistat than 'Sunburst', it showed more decay. Storage of unwashed 'Dancy' tangerine fruits for 2 weeks at 39.2º F (3º C) with 1 pad per carton showed diphenyl absorption below the legal limit. Unwashed 'Sunburst' tangerine fruits with 2 pads can be stored 4 weeks without absorbing excessive diphenyl. Early-harvested tangerines are less susceptible to decay but apt to absorb an excess of diphenyl.
In the cooler region of Jamaica, Jamaican mandarins of the main crop, harvested in January/February, lose moisture and become shriveled and unmarketable in 10 days at room temperature, 69º F (20.26º C). Wax-coating extends shelf-life to 14 days. Tangerine fruits stored in perforated polyethylene bags remain marketable for 21 days at room temperature, and, whether waxed or unwaxed, held at 41º F (5º C), retain quality for 31 days. Jamaican mandarin oranges of all kinds are primarily eaten out-of-hand, or the sections are utilized in tangerine fruit salads, gelatins, puddings, or on cakes. Very small types are canned in syrup.
The essential oil expressed from the peel is employed commercially in flavoring hard candy, gelatins, and ice cream, chewing gum, and bakery goods. Jamaican mandarin essential oil paste is a standard flavoring for carbonated beverages. The essential oil, with terpenes and sesquiterpenes removed, is utilized in liqueurs. Petitgrain Jamaican mandarin oil, distilled from the leaves, twigs and unripe tangerine fruits, has the same food applications. Tangerine oil is not suitable for flavoring purposes.
The tangerine has several minerals and vitamins, protein, fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorus, iron, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and absorbic acids. Tangerines grown in Jamaica have been shown to posses all these minerals and vitamins.
In 1965, the 'Dancy' tangerine was found to contain more of the decongestant synephrine than any other citrus tangerine fruit-97-152 mg/liter, plus 80 mg/100 g ascorbic acid. Jamaican mandarin peel oil contains decylaldehyde, y-phellandrene, p-cymene, linalool, terpineol, nerol, linalyl, terpenyl acetate, aldehydes, citral, citronellal, and d-limonene. Petitgrain Jamaican mandarin oil contains a-pinene, dipentene, limonene, p-cymene, methyl anthranilate, geraniol, and methyl methylanthranilate.
Jamaican mandarin essential oil and Petitgrain oil and tangerine oil, and their various tinctures and essences, are valued in perfume-manufacturing, particularly in the formulation of floral compounds and colognes. They are produced mostly in Italy, Sicily and Algiers.
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