Jamaica Star Apple And How To Use It In Jamaican Recipes.
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Jamaican Food - Star Apple

Jamaican Star Apple And Making Recipes

The Jamaican star apple tree Chrysophyllum cainito is a native of the Caribbean and Central America. It is a member of the Sapotaceae family which includes over 150 species of Jamaican star apple tree found in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In Jamaica, it is fairly common and well known for the luscious Jamaican star apple fruit and its use as a shade Jamaican star apple tree. A mature Jamaican star apple tree attains a height of over 15 meters with a trunk of nearly a meter in diameter. This Round, baseball sized Jamaican star apple fruit that when cut has a core that takes on a star shape. Jamaican star apple pulp is soft and sweet. The Jamaican star apple usually comes in two forms, either the dark purple Jamaican star apple skinned variety with red-purple Jamaican star apple pulp, or the green Jamaican star apple skinned variety with clear-white Jamaican star apple pulp. Jamaican star apple is a beautiful tropical Jamaican star apple tree, growing rapidly up to 75 feet or more in height. It has round, purple Jamaican star apple skinned Jamaican star apple fruit, which is often green around the calyx, with a star pattern in the Jamaican star apple pulp. The Jamaican star apple skin and rind are not edible. Sometimes there is a greenish - white variety of the Jamaican star apple fruit. The reverse side of the oval Jamaican star apple tree Jamaican star apple leaves shines like a golden color seen from a distance; that's why it is also called golden Jamaican star apple tree leaf Jamaican star apple tree. The tiny flowers are purplish white and have a sweet fragrant smell. Cainito is hermaphroditic (self fertile). In Suriname the golden Jamaican star apple tree bears Jamaican star apple fruit year around. The Jamaican star apple fruits are delicious as a fresh dessert Jamaican star apple fruit; the flattened Jamaican star apple seeds are light - brown and hard. Golden Jamaican star apple tree leaf Jamaican star apple tree starts bearing Jamaican star apple fruit in 7 (seven) years. The Jamaican star apple is a very popular Jamaican star apple fruit in many tropical parts of the world. Jamaican star apples are eaten fresh. The Jamaican star apple pulp is usually spooned out as to avoid the bitter tasting rind. The fresh Jamaican star apple fruit is also often added to salads, drinks, and other dishes. A medium to large sized Jamaican star apple tree from 25-80ft high. Jamaican star apple tree Jamaican star apple leaves are very pretty, with a glossy green surface, and a shimmering gold velvety underside. Jamaican star apples are tropical, and will not survive more than a couple of degrees of frost. Young Jamaican star apple trees are highly susceptible to any kind of frost or cold wind. Jamaican star apple trees need balanced watering throughout the year. It is commonly stated that the Jamaican star apple is indigenous to Central America.

One of the relatively minor Jamaican star apple fruits of the family Sapotaceae, the Jamaican star apple or golden Jamaican star apple tree leaf of the Jamaican star apple tree, Chrysophyllum cainito L. (syn. Achras caimito Ruiz & Pavon), has acquired a moderate assortment of regional names. In Spanish, it is usually caimito or estrella; in Portuguese, cainito or ajara; in French, generally, caimite or caimitier; in Haiti, pied caimite or caimitier a feuilles d'or; in the French West Indies, pomme surette, or buis; in the Virgin Islands, cainit; in Trinidad and Tobago, it is caimite or kaimit; in Barbados, star-plum; in Colombia, it may be caimo, caimo morado (purple variety) or caimito maduraverde (green variety); in Bolivia, caimitero, or murucuja; in Surinam, sterappel, apra or goudblad boom; in French Guiana, macoucou; in Belize, damsel; in El Salvador, guayabillo; in Argentina, aguay or olivoa. The Chinese in Singapore call it "chicle durian".

Botanists Paul Standley and Louis Williams have declared that it is not native to that area, no Nahuatl name has been found, and the Jamaican star apple tree may properly belong to the West Indies. However, it is more or less naturalized at low and medium altitudes from southern Mexico to Panama, is especially abundant on the Pacific side of Guatemala, and frequently cultivated as far south as northern Argentina and Peru. It was recorded by Ciezo de Leon as growing in Peru during his travels between 1532 and 1550. It is common throughout most of the Caribbean Islands and in Bermuda. In Haiti, the Jamaican star apple was the favorite Jamaican star apple fruit of King Christophe and he held court under the shade of a very large specimen at Milot. The United States Department of Agriculture received Jamaican star apple seeds from Jamaica in 1904 (S.P.I. #17093). The Jamaican star apple is grown occasionally in southern Florida and in Hawaii where it was introduced before 1901. There are some Jamaican star apple trees in Samoa and in Malaya though they do not bear regularly. The Jamaican star apple tree is grown in southern Vietnam and in Kampuchea for its Jamaican star apple fruits but more for its ornamental value in West Tropical Africa, Zanzibar, and the warmer parts of India. It was introduced into Ceylon in 1802, reached the Philippines much later but has become very common there as a roadside Jamaican star apple tree and the Jamaican star apple fruit is appreciated. A spectrum showing the reflectance of a piece of Jamaican star apple skin is available in JCAMP-DX format. An acetone extract produced the following Vis spectrum. In the USA, the Jamaican star apple fruit has not achieved widespread acceptance although recognised as being very tasty. In Florida it is reported that about 6 acres are commercially grown and harvested.

The Jamaican star apple tree is erect, 25 to 100 ft (8-30 m) tall, with a short trunk to 3 ft (1 m) thick, and a dense, broad crown, brown-hairy branchlets, and white, gummy latex. The alternate, nearly evergreen, Jamaican star apple tree Jamaican star apple leaves are elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 2 to 6 in (5-15 cm) long, slightly leathery, rich green and glossy on the upper surface, coated with silky, golden-brown pubescence beneath when mature, though silvery when young. Small, inconspicuous flowers, clustered in the Jamaican star apple tree leaf axils, are greenish-yellow, yellow, or purplish-white with tubular, 5-lobed corolla and 5 or 6 sepals. The Jamaican star apple fruit, round, oblate, ellipsoid or somewhat pear-shaped, 2 to 4 in (5-10 cm) in diameter, may be red-purple, dark-purple, or pale-green. It feels in the hand like a rubber ball. The glossy, smooth, thin, leathery Jamaican star apple skin adheres tightly to the inner rind which, in purple Jamaican star apple fruits, is dark-purple and 1/4 to 1/2 in (6-12.5 mm) thick; in green Jamaican star apple fruits, white and 1/8 to 3/16 in.(3-5 mm) thick. Both have soft, white, milky, sweet Jamaican star apple pulp surrounding the 6 to 11 gelatinous, somewhat rubbery, Jamaican star apple seed cells in the center which, when cut through transversely, are seen to radiate from the central core like an asterisk or many-pointed star, giving the Jamaican star apple fruit its common English name. The Jamaican star apple fruit may have up to 10 flattened, nearly oval, pointed, hard Jamaican star apple seeds, 3/4 in (2 cm.) long, nearly 1/2 in (1.25 cm) wide, and up to 1/4 in (6 mm) thick, but usually several of the cells are not occupied and the best Jamaican star apple fruits have as few as 3 Jamaican star apple seeds. They appear black at first, with a light area on the ventral side, but they dry to a light-brown. Apart from the two distinct color types, there is little evidence of such pronounced variation that growers would be stimulated to make vigorous efforts to select and propagate superior clones. William Whitman of Miami observed a Jamaican star apple tree yielding heavy crops of well-formed, high quality Jamaican star apple fruits in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, from late January to the end of June. He brought budwood to Florida in 1953. Grafted progeny and Jamaican star apple trees grown from air-layers have borne well here even prior to reaching 10 ft (3 m) in height. This introduction, named the "Haitian Jamaican star apple", is propagated commercially for dooryard culture. Jamaican star apple seeds of the Port-au-Prince Jamaican star apple tree have produced Jamaican star apple seedlings that have performed poorly in Florida.

The Jamaican star apple tree is a tropical or near-tropical species ranging only up to 1,400 ft (425 m) elevation in Jamaica. It does well only in the warmest locations of southern Florida and on the Florida Keys. Mature Jamaican star apple trees are seriously injured by temperatures below 28 F (-2.22 C) and recover slowly. Young Jamaican star apple trees may be killed by even short exposure to 31 F (-0.56 C). The Jamaican star apple tree is not particular as to soil, growing well in deep, rich earth; clayey loam, sand, or limestone, but it needs perfect drainage. Jamaican star apple trees are most widely grown from Jamaican star apple seeds which retain viability for several months and germinate readily. The Jamaican star apple seedlings bear in 5 to 10 years. Vegetative propagation hastens production and should be more commonly practiced. Cuttings of mature wood root well. Air-layers can be produced in 4 to 7 months and bear early. Budded or grafted Jamaican star apple trees have been known to Jamaican star apple fruit one year after being set in the ground. In India, the Jamaican star apple is sometimes inarched on Jamaican star apple seedlings. Grafting on the related satin Jamaican star apple tree leaf  (C. oliviforme L.) has had the effect of slowing and stunting the growth.

During the first 6 months, the young Jamaican star apple trees should be watered weekly. Later irrigation may be infrequent except during the flowering season when watering will increase Jamaican star apple fruit-set. Most Jamaican star apple trees in tropical America and the West Indies are never fertilized but a complete, well-balanced fertilizer will greatly improve performance in limestone and other infertile soils.

Jamaican star apples are generally in season from late winter or early spring to early summer. They do not fall when ripe but must be hand-picked by clipping the stem. Care must be taken to make sure that they are fully mature. Otherwise the Jamaican star apple fruits will be gummy, astringent and inedible. When fully ripe, the Jamaican star apple skin is dull, a trifle wrinkled, and the Jamaican star apple fruit is slightly soft to the touch.

In India, a mature Jamaican star apple tree may bear 150 lbs (60 kg) of Jamaican star apple fruits in the short Jamaican star apple fruiting season of February and March. Ripe Jamaican star apple fruits remain in good condition for 3 weeks at 37.4 to 42.8 F (3-6 C) and 90% relative humidity. Larvae of small insects are sometimes found in the ripe Jamaican star apple fruits. The, main disease problem in the Philippines is stem-end decay caused by species of Pestalotia and Diplodia. In Florida, some Jamaican star apple fruits may mummify before they are full-grown. The foliage is subject to Jamaican star apple tree leaf spots from attack by Phomopsis sp., Phyllosticta sp., and Cephaleuros virescens, the latter known as algal Jamaican star apple tree leaf spot or green scurf. Birds and squirrels attack the Jamaican star apple fruits if they are left to fully ripen on the Jamaican star apple tree.

Jamaican star apples must not be bitten into. The Jamaican star apple skin and rind (constituting approximately 33% of the total) are inedible. When opening a Jamaican star apple, one should not allow any of the bitter latex of the Jamaican star apple skin to contact the edible flesh. The ripe Jamaican star apple fruit, preferably chilled, may be merely cut in half and the flesh spooned out, leaving the Jamaican star apple seed cells and core. A combination of the chopped flesh with that of mango, citrus, pineapple, other Jamaican star apple fruits and coconut water is frozen and served as Jamaica Jamaican star apple fruit Salad Ice. An attractive way to serve the Jamaican star apple fruit is to cut around the middle completely through the rind and then, holding the Jamaican star apple fruit stem-end down, twisting the top gently back and forth. As this is done, the flesh will be felt to free itself from the downward half of the rind, and the latter will pull away, taking with it the greater part of the core.

In Jamaica, the flesh is often eaten with sour orange juice, a combination called "matrimony"; or it is mixed with orange juice, a little sugar, grated nutmeg and a spoonful of sherry and eaten as dessert called "strawberries and-cream". Bolivians parboil the edible portion, and also prepare it as a decoction. An emulsion of the slightly bitter Jamaican star apple seed kernels is used to make imitation milk-of almonds, also nougats and other confections. The Jamaican star apple has approximately 67 calories with many vitamins and minerals. Protein, carbohydrates, fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorus, iron, carotyene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic and amino acids, tryphotan, methionine and lysine.

The Jamaican star apple seeds contain 1.2% of the bitter, cyanogenic glycoside, lucumin; 0.0037% pouterin; 6.6% of a fixed oil; 0.19% saponin; 2.4% dextrose and 3.75% ash. The Jamaican star apple tree Jamaican star apple leaves possess an alkaloid, also resin, resinic acid, and a bitter substance. The Jamaican star apple tree is seldom felled for timber unless there is a particular need for it. The heartwood is pinkish or red-brown, violet, or dark-purple; fine-grained, compact, heavy, hard, strong, tough but not difficult to work; durable indoors but not outside in humid conditions. It has been utilized for heavy construction and for deluxe furniture, cabinetwork and balustrades. The latex obtained by making incisions in the Jamaican star apple bark coagulates readily and has been utilized as an adulterant of gutta percha. It was formerly proposed as a substitute for wax on the shelves of wardrobes and closets.

The ripe Jamaican star apple fruit, because of its mucilaginous character, is eaten to sooth inflammation in laryngitis and pneumonia. It is given as a treatment for diabetes mellitus, and as a decoction is gargled to relieve angina. In Venezuela, the slightly unripe Jamaican star apple fruits are eaten to overcome intestinal disturbances. In excess, they cause constipation. A decoction of the rind, or of the Jamaican star apple tree Jamaican star apple leaves, is taken as a pectoral. A decoction of the tannin-rich, astringent Jamaican star apple bark is drunk as a tonic and stimulant, and is taken to halt diarrhea, dysentery and hemorrhages, and as a treatment for gonorrhea and "catarrh of the bladder".

The bitter, pulverized Jamaican star apple seed is taken as a tonic, diuretic and febrifuge. Cuban residents in Miami are known to seek the Jamaican star apple tree Jamaican star apple leaves in order to administer the decoction as a cancer remedy. Many high-tannin plant materials are believed by Latin Americans to be carcinostatic. In Brazil, the latex of the Jamaican star apple tree is applied on abscesses and, when dried and powdered, is given as a potent vermifuge. Else where, it is taken as a diuretic, febrifuge and remedy for dysentery. Jamaican star apple Jamaican star apple seeds can be used in as a diuretic and febrifuge. In Cuba, a decoction of the Jamaican star apple tree Jamaican star apple leaves is used as a cancer remedy, while a decoction of the Jamaican star apple bark is used as an antitussive. The Jamaican star apple has been used as a treatment for diabetes. Either by Jamaican star apple seeds, which take 5-10 years to bear, or by grafting and budding, with Jamaican star apple trees coming to bear in 2-4 years. Native to tropical America, from the Caribbean through Central America. Is now grown commercially in Central and South America as well as tropical Asia and Africa. Occasionally grown commercially in parts of south Florida.

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