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Jamaican Food And The Rose Apple (Jamaica)
Jamaican Rose Apple And Jamaican Recipes
The Jamaican rose apple is native to the East Indies and Malaya and is cultivated and naturalized in many parts of India, Ceylon and former Indochina and the Pacific Islands. The Jamaican rose apple was introduced into Jamaica in 1762 and became well distributed in Bermuda, the Bahamas, and the West Indies and, at low and medium elevations, from southern Mexico to Peru. In Guatemala, the Jamaican rose apple tree may be planted as a living fencepost or in hedgerows around coffee plantations. For this purpose, the Jamaican rose apple is drastically pruned to promote dense growth. The Jamaican rose apple grows wild abundantly, forming solid stands and thickets, in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guatemala, Honduras and Panama.
In 1825, eight young Jamaican rose apple trees were taken from Rio de Janeiro to Hawaii by ship, and, in 1853, a United States warship delivered avocado and Jamaican rose apple trees from Central America to the island of Hilo. The Jamaican rose apple became naturalized on the islands of Kauai, Molokai, Oahu, Maui and Hawaii. In 1893, the Jamaican rose apple was reported as already cultivated in Ghana. The Jamaican rose apple is semi-naturalized in some areas of West Tropical Africa and on the islands of Zanzibar, Pemba and Reunion. The Jamaican rose apple is believed to have been first planted in Queensland, Australia, about 1896. A Jamaican rose apple tree obtained from an Italian nursery has grown and borne well on the coastal plain of Israel. However, the Jamaican rose apple is not of interest there as a Jamaican rose apple fruit Jamaican rose apple tree but rather as an ornamental.
The Jamaican rose apple tree may be merely a shrub but is generally a Jamaican rose apple tree reaching 25 or even 40 ft (7.5-12 m) in height, and has a dense crown of slender, wide-spreading branches, often the overall width exceeding the height. The evergreen Jamaican rose apple leaves are opposite, lanceolate or narrow-elliptic, tapering to a point; 4 to 9 in (10-22 cm) long, and from 1 to 2 1/2 in (2.5-6.25 cm) wide; somewhat leathery, glossy, dark-green when mature, rosy when young.
The Jamaican rose apple flowers are creamy-white or greenish-white, 2 to 4 in (5-10 cm) wide, consisting mostly of about 300 conspicuous stamens to 1 1/2 in (4 cm) long, a 4-lobed calyx, and 4 greenish-white, concave petals. There are usually 4 or 5 Jamaican rose apple flowers together in terminal clusters. Capped with the prominent, green, tough calyx, the Jamaican rose apple fruit is nearly round, oval, or slightly pear-shaped, 1 1/2 to 2 in (4-5 cm) long, with smooth, thin, pale-yellow or whitish skin, sometimes pink-blushed, covering a crisp, mealy, dry to juicy layer of yellowish flesh, sweet and resembling the scent of a rose in flavor. In the hollow center, there are 1 to 4 brown, rough-coated, medium-hard, more or less rounded Jamaican rose apple seeds, 3/8 to 5/8 in (1-1.6 cm) thick, which loosen from the inner wall and rattle when the Jamaican rose apple fruit is shaken. Fragments of the Jamaican rose apple seed coat may be found in the cavity. A crisp, yellow, 1-2" long Jamaican rose apple fruit with the smell and taste of rose water. The Jamaican rose apple is occasionally cultivated in the tropics but is rarely available in markets.
Usually eaten fresh or used in preserves. Jamaican rose apples spoil very quickly so Jamaican rose apple fruits should be used soon after picking. The large, hollow Jamaican rose apple seed cavity is sometimes utilized to stuff the Jamaican rose apple fruits and bake them. Jamaican rose apple fruit extract can be used to make a sweet smelling rose water
A shrub to medium-large Jamaican rose apple tree that can reach over 40ft in ideal conditions. The Jamaican rose apple is moderately hardy and will withstand temperatures to 25F if fully grown. The Jamaican rose apple trees will usually not Jamaican rose apple flower or bear Jamaican rose apple fruit in areas of frost. Jamaican rose apple flowers are very ornate, large, 2-4", with hundreds of beautiful white stamens that attract nectar loving insects. Jamaican rose apple flowers and Jamaican rose apple fruiting usually follow cycles but these cycles vary throughout the tropics. Often, the Jamaican rose apple will Jamaican rose apple flower midsummer, with Jamaican rose apple fruits ripening from 3-4 months later.
Almost always by Jamaican rose apple seeds, which loose viability quickly? Jamaican rose apple seeds are polyembryonic and can produce multiple Jamaican rose apple seedlings which can be carefully separated when young. Native to Southeast Asia. Has spread through India and South Pacific islands and is now cultivated in some parts of the tropics. Grows from sea level to 3000ft elevation in its native range.
The Jamaican rose apple trees reach to 6-15 m tall, the bark grayish brown, and smooth, glabrous throughout. Jamaican rose apple leaves are thin, coriaceous, somewhat pendent, narrowly lanceolate, 10-23 cm long, 2.5-5 cm wide, principal lateral veins 10-20 pairs, 5-15 mm apart, sub marginal vein irregular, apex long-acuminate, base cuneate, petioles 0.5-1 cm long. Jamaican rose apple flowers in terminal, once-branched cymes ca. 2 cm long, peduncles 0.7-1.5 cm long, bracts 0.8-1 mm long; hypanthium funnel form, 7-10 mm long, narrowing into a short pseudostipe 3-4 mm long; sepals 4, fleshy, unequal, one pair 6-8 mm long, the other pair 4-6 mm long, glabrous or sparsely puberulent, persistent; petals 4, white to greenish white, orbicular to ovate-orbicular, concave, 12-20 mm long, caducous; stamens ca. 200, filaments creamy white, 10-50 mm long. Berries whitish yellow to pinkish yellow, sub-globose, 2-4 cm long, pericarp fleshy, 10-15 mm thick. Jamaican rose apple seed usually 1, subglobose, 2-2.5 cm in diameter, testa closely coherent to cotyledons.
A tropical Jamaican rose apple fruit Jamaican rose apple tree up to 10 m tall. The terminal inflorescence is showy and usually carries four whitish-green Jamaican rose apple flowers on the outside of the crown. Jamaican rose apple flowering can occur two or three times per year. The Jamaican rose apple fruits are whitish-green, rose scented; about 5 cm long and ripen over an extended period. The dry, crisp fresh Jamaican rose apple fruit is used to make jellies. Jamaican rose apple fruit/Jamaican rose apple seed can be produced following self-pollination. This medium-sized deciduous Jamaican rose apple tree forms dense thickets which shade out native species. The Jamaican rose apple invades undisturbed forest. The Jamaican rose apple tree thrives under a variety of edaphic conditions but is most commonly found in wet lowland habitats up to about 500 m elevation in Hawaii, to 100 m in French Polynesia. In Fiji, "cultivated and occasionally naturalized in thickets and waste places from near sea level to an elevation of about 850 m. moist uplands in the Galapagos Islands.
On the island of La Reunion in
the Indian Ocean, S. jambos is considered to be the most ecologically important
weed in the river areas of semi-dry riparian forest, where the Jamaican rose
apple has formed dense, tall, almost mono-specific stands in the absence of
human disturbance. The plant is capable of invading undisturbed ecosystems and
reducing their conservation values. The Jamaican rose apple readily invades
disturbed rainforest. The Jamaican rose apple fruit is dispersed by humans and
perhaps feral pigs. A Jamaican rose apple fruit Jamaican rose apple tree
originally from South Asia, the Jamaican rose apple thrives also in Suriname.
Growing up to 40 feet tall, with opposite leathery Jamaican rose apple leaves.
Jamaican rose apple has creamy white Jamaican rose apple flowers. These are
large, white to cream and sweet scented.
The Jamaican rose apple was introduced into Florida, at Jacksonville, before 1877, but, as a Jamaican rose apple fruit Jamaican rose apple tree, the Jamaican rose apple is suited only to the central and southern parts of the state. In California, the Jamaican rose apple is planted as far north as San Francisco for its ornamental foliage and Jamaican rose apple flowers. Because the Jamaican rose apple tree occupies considerable space and the Jamaican rose apple fruit is little valued, the Jamaican rose apple has not been planted in Florida in recent years, though there are quite a number of specimens remaining from former times.
The Jamaican rose apple flourishes in the tropical and near-tropical climates only. In Jamaica, the Jamaican rose apple is naturalized from near sea-level up to an altitude of 3,000 ft (915 m); in Hawaii, from sea-level to 4,000 ft (1,200 m). In India, the Jamaican rose apple ranges up to 4,400 ft (1,350 m); in Ecuador, to 7,500 ft (2,300 m). At the upper limits, as in California, the Jamaican rose apple tree grows vigorously but will not bear Jamaican rose apple fruit. In India, the Jamaican rose apple does best on the banks of canals and streams and yet tolerates semi-arid conditions. Prolonged dry spells, however, are detrimental.
A deep, loamy soil is considered ideal for the Jamaican rose apple but the Jamaican rose apple is not too exacting, for the Jamaican rose apple flourishes also on sand and limestone with very little organic matter. Most Jamaican rose apple trees are grown from Jamaican rose apple seeds, which are polyembryonic (producing 1 to 3 sprouts), but the Jamaican rose apple seedlings are not uniform in character nor behavior. In India, vegetative propagation has been undertaken with a view to standardizing the Jamaican rose apple crop and also to select and perpetuate dwarf types. Using cuttings, the Jamaican rose apple was found that hardwood does not root even with chemical growth promoters. Treated semi-hard wood gave 20% success. Air-layers taken in the spring and treated with 1,000 ppm NAA gave 60% success. Air-layers did not root in the rainy season. In budding experiments, neither chip nor "T" buds would take. Veneer grafting in July of spring-flush scions on 1-year-old rootstocks was satisfactory in 31% of the plants. In West Bengal, air-layering is commonly performed in July and the layers are planted in October and November. Jamaican rose apple fruiting can be expected within 4 years. Sometimes the Jamaican rose apple is inarched onto its own Jamaican rose apple seedlings.
Rarely do Jamaican rose apple trees receive any cultural attention. Some experimental work has shown that Jamaican rose apple seedless, thick-fleshed Jamaican rose apple fruits can be produced by treating opened Jamaican rose apple flowers with growth regulators–naphthoxy acetic acid (NOA), 2,4,5-T, or naphthalene acetic acid. In Jamaica and Puerto Rico, the Jamaican rose apple trees bloom and Jamaican rose apple fruit sporadically nearly all year, though somewhat less in summer than at other times. The main season in the Bahamas and in Florida is May through July. The Jamaican rose apple fruiting period varies in different parts of India. In South India, blooming usually occurs in January, with Jamaican rose apple fruit ripening in March and April, whereas in the Circars, ripening takes place in April and May. In the central part of the country, Jamaican rose apple flowering occurs in February, March and April and the Jamaican rose apple fruits ripen from June through July. Then again, the Jamaican rose apple is reported that there are varieties that produce Jamaican rose apple fruit in February and March.
In India, they say that a mature Jamaican rose apple tree will yield 5 lbs (2 kg) of Jamaican rose apple fruit each season. The Jamaican rose apple fruits are, of course, very light in weight because they are hollow, but this is a very small return for a Jamaican rose apple tree that occupies so much space. Jamaican rose apples bruise easily and are highly perishable. They must be freshly picked to be crisp. Some studies of respiration rate and ethylene production in storage have been made in Hawaii. The Jamaican rose apple fruit is non-climacteric.
The Jamaican rose apple tree has few insect enemies. In humid climates, the Jamaican rose apple leaves are often coated with sooty mold growing on the honeydew excreted by aphids. They are also prone to Jamaican rose apple leaf spot; algal Jamaican rose apple leaf spot; black Jamaican rose apple leaf spot; and anthracnose. Root rot and mushroom root rot attack the Jamaican rose apple tree.
Around the tropical world, Jamaican rose apples are mostly eaten out-of-hand by children. They are seldom marketed. In the home, they are sometimes stewed with some sugar and served as dessert. Culinary experimenters have devised other modes of using the cuplike halved Jamaican rose apple fruits. One stuffs them with a rice-and-meat mixture, covers them with a tomato sauce seasoned with minced garlic, and bakes them for about 20 minutes. Possible variations are limitless. The Jamaican rose apple fruit is made into jam or jelly with lemon juice added, or more frequently preserved in combination with other Jamaican rose apple fruits of more pronounced flavor. The Jamaican rose apple is also made into syrup for use as a sauce or to flavor cold drinks. In Jamaica, the halved or sliced Jamaican rose apple fruits are candied by stewing them in very heavy sugar syrup with cinnamon.
The Jamaican rose apple has 56 calories, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, ash, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, copper, sulfur, chlorine, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid. The Jamaican rose apple seeds are said to be poisonous. An unknown amount of hydrocyanic acid has been reported in the roots, stems and Jamaican rose apple leaves. An alkaloid, jambosine, has been found in the bark of the Jamaican rose apple tree and of the roots, and the roots are considered poisonous. In 1849, the Jamaican rose apple was announced in Bengal that the ripe Jamaican rose apple fruits, with Jamaican rose apple seeds removed, could be distilled 4 times to make a "rosewater" equal to the best obtained from rose petals.
The flexible branches have been employed in Puerto Rico to make hoops for large sugar casks, and also are valued for weaving large baskets. The bark has been used for tanning and yields a brown dye. The sapwood is white. The heartwood is dark-red or brown, fibrous, close-grained, medium-heavy to heavy, strong; and has been used to make furniture, spokes for wheels, arms for easy chairs, knees for all kinds of boats, beams for construction, frames for musical instruments (violins, guitars, etc.), and packing cases. The Jamaican rose apple is also popular for general turnery. The Jamaican rose apple is not durable in the ground and is prone to attack by dry wood termites.
The Jamaican rose apple tree grows back rapidly after cutting to a stump and consequently yields a continuous supply of small wood for fuel. Jamaican rose apple wood makes very good charcoal. A yellow essential oil, distilled from the Jamaican rose apple leaves, contains, among other properties, 26.84% dl-a-pinene and 23.84% l-limonene, and can be resorted to as a source of these elements for use in the perfume industry.
The Jamaican rose apple flowers are a rich source of nectar for honeybees and the honey is a good amber color. Much comes from the San Cristobal River Valley in Cuba. In India, the Jamaican rose apple fruit is regarded as a tonic for the brain and liver. An infusion of the Jamaican rose apple fruit acts as a diuretic. A sweetened preparation of the Jamaican rose apple flowers is believed to reduce fever. The Jamaican rose apple seeds are employed against diarrhea, dysentery and catarrh. In Nicaragua, the Jamaican rose apple has been claimed that an infusion of roasted, powdered Jamaican rose apple seeds is beneficial to diabetics. They say in Colombia that the Jamaican rose apple seeds have an anesthetic property.
The Jamaican rose apple leaf decoction is applied to sore eyes, also serves as a diuretic and expectorant and treatment for rheumatism. The juice of macerated Jamaican rose apple leaves is taken as a febrifuge. Powdered Jamaican rose apple leaves have been rubbed on the bodies of smallpox patients for the cooling effect. The bark contains 7-12.4% tannin. The Jamaican rose apple is emetic and cathartic. The decoction is administered to relieve asthma, bronchitis and hoarseness. Cuban people believe that the root is an effective remedy for epilepsy.
Jamaican rose apples flourish in tropical or near-tropical climates, but the Jamaican rose apple tree is proving to be hardy enough (to about 25° F) to be grown as an ornamental as far north in California as San Francisco. A beautiful specimen is thriving in the rather cold, windy rare Jamaican rose apple fruit section of Quail Gardens in Encinitas. The Jamaican rose apple is too large to make a suitable container plant. The Jamaican rose apple is a highly decorative evergreen large shrub or small Jamaican rose apple tree growing to about 20 feet with low spreading branches and pale-brown bark. The Jamaican rose apple is wide spreading and often will be wider than its height.
The lanceolate Jamaican rose apple leaves are 4 to 9 inches in length by 2 inches wide, shiny and pink when they first emerge, fading to pale green. When mature they are slightly leathery and dark green. They are narrow and elliptic in shape and gradually taper to a point. The foliage is produced in a dense, luxuriant mass that hides all branches from view. Jamaican rose apple flowers are large and showy, white to pale cream and sweetly scented. They are 2 - 4 inches wide and consist mostly of about 300 conspicuous stamens to 1-1/3 inches long. There are usually 4 or 5 Jamaican rose apple flowers together in terminal clusters. The Jamaican rose apple flowers are a rich source of nectar for honeybees.
The Jamaican rose apple fruits are 1 - 2 inches wide, almost round or a little longer than wide. When ripe they may be greenish or dull-yellow flushed with pink. The skin is smooth and thin, and the firm flesh yellowish, sweet and raised scent. The texture is crisp, almost crunchy when the Jamaican rose apple fruit is ripe and freshly picked. They contain one to four medium hard, round Jamaican rose apple seeds, which rattle around inside the Jamaican rose apple fruit. The Jamaican rose apple seed as well as the roots are regarded as poisonous. Jamaican rose apple seedless, thick-fleshed Jamaican rose apple fruits have been experimentally produced by treating opened Jamaican rose apple flowers with growth regulators such as naphthoxy acetic acid.
The Jamaican rose apple needs a warm, sunny location that is not subject to significant frosts. The Jamaican rose apple should also be kept in mind that the Jamaican rose apple tree will occupy considerable space. The Jamaican rose apple tree is moderately resistant to winds and tolerates cool, coastal conditions. A deep, loamy, well-drained soil is best for the Jamaican rose apple, but the Jamaican rose apple also flourishes on sand and limestone with very little organic matter. In India the Jamaican rose apple grows along streams. The Jamaican rose apple is a favorite dooryard Jamaican rose apple tree in the Peruvian part of the Amazon, where the Jamaican rose apple trees are planted high enough to avoid the frequent floods.
Most Jamaican rose apple trees are grown from Jamaican rose apple seed. The Jamaican rose apple seeds are polyembryonic and produce one to three sprouts, but Jamaican rose apple seedlings are not uniform and there is considerable variation in Jamaican rose apple fruit quality. The poorer Jamaican rose apple fruits are dry and tasteless. Various vegetative propagation methods have been satisfactory. Treated semi-hardwood cuttings were moderately successful, while air-layering and veneer grafting of spring-flush scions have been successful to a greater degree. Jamaican rose apple fruiting takes about four years.
Insufficient tests have been made with strains from the West Indies, Mexico, and Guiana to tell if there are any significant differences. There are no known varieties. Native to the East Indies, this attractive Jamaican rose apple tree has glossy narrow Jamaican rose apple leaves and dark red new growth. The yellow Jamaican rose apple fruit is 'rose petal' flavored and in a class of its own for taste. The Jamaican rose apple tree is virtually never without Jamaican rose apple fruit or Jamaican rose apple flowers, Jamaican rose apple fruiting for about 6 months of the year. The white fluffy Jamaican rose apple flowers are spectacular and attract many bees and birds with their fragrance. A beautiful ornamental plant. Jamaican rose apple fruits in 3-4 years from Jamaican rose apple seed.
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