Passion Fruit, Using the Jamaican Passion Fruit In Jamaican Food Recipes
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Jamaican Food - Jamaican Passion Fruit

Using The Passion Fruit To Make Jamaican Recipes

The Jamaican passion fruit is a vigorous, climbing Jamaican passion fruit vine that clings by tendrils to almost any support. The Jamaican passion fruit can grow 15 to 20 ft. per year once established and must have strong support. The Jamaican passion fruit is generally short-lived 5 to 7 years. The evergreen Jamaican passion fruit leaves of Jamaican passion fruit are alternate, deeply 3-lobed when mature and finely toothed. They are 3 to 8 inches long, deep green and glossy above, paler and dull beneath and, like the young stems and tendrils, tinged with red or purple, specially in the yellow form. The Jamaican passion fruit vine is a shallow-rooted, woody, perennial, and climbing by means of tendrils. The alternate, evergreen Jamaican passion fruit leaves, deeply 3-lobed when mature, are finely toothed, 3 to 8 inches long, deep-green and glossy above, paler and dull beneath, and, like the young stems and tendrils, tinged with red or purple, especially in the yellow form. A single, fragrant Jamaican passion fruit flower, 2 to 3 in (5-7.5 cm) wide, is borne at each node on the new growth. The bloom, clasped by 3 large, green, Jamaican passion fruit leaf like bracts, consists of 5 greenish-white sepals, 5 white petals, a fringelike corona of straight, white-tipped rays, rich purple at the base, also 5 stamens with large anthers, the ovary, and triple-branched style forming a prominent central structure. The Jamaican passion fruit flower of the yellow is the showier, with more intense color. The nearly round or ovoid Jamaican passion fruit , 1 1/2 to 3 in (4-7.5 cm) wide, has a tough rind, smooth, waxy, ranging in hue from dark-purple with faint, fine white specks, to light-yellow or pumpkin-color. The Jamaican passion fruit is 1/8 in (3 mm) thick, adhering to a ¼ in (6 mm) layer of white pith. Within is a cavity more or less filled with an aromatic mass of double-walled, membranous sacs filled with orange-colored, Jamaican passion fruit pulpy juice and as many as 250 small, hard, dark-brown or black, pitted Jamaican passion fruit seeds. The flavor is appealing, musky, guava-like, sub-acid to acid.

The purple Jamaican passion fruit is native from southern Brazil through Paraguay to northern Argentina. The Jamaican passion fruit has been stated that the yellow form is of unknown origin, or perhaps native to the Amazon region of Brazil, or is a hybrid between P. edulis and P. ligularis. Cytological studies have not borne out the hybrid theory. In Australia the purple Jamaican passion fruit was flourishing and partially naturalized in coastal areas of Queensland before 1900. In Hawaii, Jamaican passion fruit seeds of the purple Jamaican passion fruit, brought from Australia, were first planted in 1880 and the Jamaican passion fruit vine came to be popular in home gardens. The purple Jamaican passion fruit is native from southern Brazil through Paraguay to northern Argentina. The Jamaican passion fruit has been stated that the yellow form is of unknown origin, or perhaps native to the Amazon region of Brazil, or is a hybrid between P. edulis and P. ligularis (q.v.). Cytological studies have not borne out the hybrid theory. Speculation as to Australian origin arose through the introduction of Jamaican passion fruit seeds from that country into Hawaii and the mainland United States by E.N. Reasoner in 1923. Jamaican passion fruit seeds of a yellow-fruited form were sent from Argentina to the United States with the explanation that the Jamaican passion fruit vine was grown at the Guemes Agricultural Experiment Station from Jamaican passion fruit seeds taken from fruits purchased in Covent Garden, London. Some now think the yellow is a chance mutant that occurred in Australia. Brazil has long had a well-established Jamaican passion fruit industry with large-scale juice extraction plants. The purple Jamaican passion fruit is there preferred for consuming fresh; the yellow for Jamaican passion fruit juice processing and the making of preserves.

In Australia, the purple Jamaican passion fruit was flourishing and partially naturalized in coastal areas of Queensland before 1900. Its cultivation, especially on abandoned banana plantations, attained great importance and the Jamaican passion fruit crop was considered relatively disease-free and easily managed. Then, about 1943, a widespread invasion of wilt killed the Jamaican passion fruit vines and forced the undertaking of research to find fungus-resistant substitutes. The Jamaican passion fruit was discovered that the neglected yellow Jamaican passion fruit is both wilt-and nematode-resistant and does not sucker from the roots. The Jamaican passion fruit was adopted as a rootstock and plants propagated by grafting were soon made available to planters in Queensland and northern New South Wales. The Australian taste is strongly prejudiced in favor of the purple Jamaican passion fruit and growers have been reluctant to relinquish the Jamaican passion fruit altogether. Only in the last few decades have they begun to adopt hybrids of the purple and yellow which have shown some ability to withstand the serious virus disease called "woodiness".

An evergreen climber growing to 9m at a fast rate. The Jamaican passion fruit is hardy to zone 10 and is frost tender. The Jamaican passion fruit is in Jamaican passion fruit leaf all year, in Jamaican passion fruit flower from July to August. The scented Jamaican passion fruit flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. We rate the Jamaican passion fruit 2 out of 5 for usefulness. The Jamaican passion fruit plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The Jamaican passion fruit plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. The Jamaican passion fruit cannot grow in the shade. The Jamaican passion fruit requires moist soil. New Zealand, in the early 1930's, had a small but thriving purple Jamaican passion fruit industry in Auckland Province but in a few years the disease-susceptibility of this type brought about its decline. Today, Jamaican passion fruit and Jamaican passion fruit juice are exported. A profitable purple Jamaican passion fruit industry has developed also in New Guinea.

The purple Jamaican passion fruit is subtropical and prefers a frost-free climate. However, there are cultivars that can take temperatures into the upper 20's (°F) without serious damage. The Jamaican passion fruit plant is widely grown in California. The Jamaican passion fruit vines may lose some of their Jamaican passion fruit leaves in cool winters. The roots often re-sprout even if the top is killed. The Jamaican passion fruit plant does not grow well in intense summer heat. The yellow Jamaican passion fruit is tropical or near-tropical and is much more intolerant of frost. Both forms need protection from the wind. Generally, annual rainfall should be at least 35 inches. Jamaican passion fruit vines make good container specimens but require maintenance. They perform well indoors. A single, fragrant Jamaican passion fruit flower, 2 to 3 inches wide, is born at each node on the new growth. The bloom, clasped by 3 large, green, lifelike bracts, consists of 5 greenish-white sepals, 5 white petals and a fringelike corona of straight, white-tipped rays, rich purple at the base. The Jamaican passion fruit also has 5 stamens with large anthers, the ovary and triple-branched style forming a prominent central structure. Purple Jamaican passion fruit is self-fruitful, but pollination is best under humid conditions. The Jamaican passion fruit flowers of the yellow form are perfect but self-sterile. Carpenter bees are the most efficient pollinator, much more so than honey bees. Wind is ineffective because of the Jamaican passion fruit vines and stickiness of the pollen. The Jamaican passion fruit flowers can also be hand pollinated.

The nearly round or ovoid Jamaican passion fruit , 1-1/2 to 3 inches wide, has a tough rind that is smooth and waxy and ranging in hue from dark purple with faint, fine white specks, to light yellow or pumpkin-color. Within is a cavity more or less filled with an aromatic mass of double walled, membranous sacs containing orange-colored, Jamaican passion fruit pulpy juice and as many as 250 small, hard, dark brown or black, pitted Jamaican passion fruit seeds. The unique flavor is appealing, musky, guava-like and sweet/tart to tart. The yellow form has generally larger Jamaican passion fruit  than the purple, but the Jamaican passion fruit pulp of the purple is less acid, richer in aroma and flavor, and has a higher proportion of juice (35-38%). Numerous hybrids have been made between purple and the yellow Jamaican passion fruit, often yielding colors and other characteristic intermediate between the two forms. The Jamaican passion fruit vine, especially the yellow form, is fast-growing and will begin to bear in 1 to 3 years. Ripening occurs 70 to 80 days after pollination. Jamaican passion fruit plants and Jamaican passion fruit vines should be grown in full sun except in very hot areas where partial shade is preferable. The Jamaican passion fruit vine can be rather rampant, so the Jamaican passion fruit is important to Jamaican passion fruit plant the Jamaican passion fruit next to a chain link fence or install a strong trellis before planting. The plants can also be trained into an attractive arbor. Jamaican passion fruit vines grow on many soil types but light to heavy sandy loams with a pH of 6.5 to 7.5 are the most suitable. Excellent drainage is absolutely necessary. Also, the soil should be rich in organic matter and low in salts. If the soil is too acid, lime must be applied. Because the Jamaican passion fruit vines are shallow-rooted, they will benefit from a thick layer of organic mulch.

Regular watering will keep a Jamaican passion fruit vine Jamaican passion fruit flowering and fruiting almost continuously. Water requirement is high when fruits are approaching maturity. If the soil is dry, fruits may shrivel and fall prematurely. Jamaican passion fruit vines are vigorous growers and require regular fertilizing. A good choice is 10-5-20 NPK applied at the rate of 3 pounds per Jamaican passion fruit plant 4 times a year. Too much nitrogen results in vigorous foliage growth at the expense of Jamaican passion fruit flowering. Jamaican passion fruit vines should always be watched for deficiencies, particularly in potassium and calcium, and of less importance, magnesium. Plants that have been damaged by frost should receive a generous fertilizing after the weather has warmed. Pruning is necessary to keep the Jamaican passion fruit vines within bounds, to make harvest easier and to keep the plants productive by maintaining vigorous growth. In warm winter climates prune immediately after harvest. In areas with cool winters prune in early spring. As a general rule remove all weak growth and cut back vigorous growth by at least one third. In very hot climates allow a thick canopy of foliage to grow around the Jamaican passion fruit to prevent sunburn.

Because of their mass, Jamaican passion fruit vines are difficult to cover when freezes threaten, but the layers of Jamaican passion fruit leaves help protect the inner branches from frost damage. The Jamaican passion fruit plant will also usually come back even when frozen to the ground. The best strategy is to grow the Jamaican passion fruit vines against a wall or deck or in a patio. Any kind of overhead protection provides additional benefits. Jamaican passion fruit vines are usually grown from Jamaican passion fruit seeds. With the yellow form Jamaican passion fruit seedling variation provides cross-pollination and helps overcome the problem of self-sterility. Jamaican passion fruit seed planted soon after removal from the Jamaican passion fruit will germinate in 10 to 20 days. Cleaned and stored Jamaican passion fruit seeds have a lower and slower rate of germination. Jamaican passion fruit seeds should be planted 1/2 to 1 inch deep in beds, and Jamaican passion fruit seedlings may be transplanted when 10 inches high. If taller (up to 3 feet), the Jamaican passion fruit tops should be cut back and the Jamaican passion fruit plants heavily watered. Rooting may be hastened by hormone treatment. Cuttings should be well rooted and ready for setting out in 90 days. Grafting is an important means of perpetuating hybrids and reducing nematode damage and diseases by utilizing the resistant yellow Jamaican passion fruit rootstock. Scions of healthy young Jamaican passion fruit plants are grafted to Jamaican passion fruit seedlings, making sure the diameter of the scion matches that of the rootstock. Either a cleft graft, whip graft or side-wedge graft may be made.

In tropical areas Jamaican passion fruit vines are attacked by a host of pests and diseases. In these areas the purple Jamaican passion fruit is particularly susceptible to nematodes, while the yellow Jamaican passion fruit is more nematode resistant. In California the problems are much less severe, although the plants can be afflicted with nematodes and viruses as well as Fusarium and other diseases that thrive in cool soils. Nematodes are partially responsible for the short life of many Jamaican passion fruit vines. Snails can also be a serious problem in California, often completely stripping a Jamaican passion fruit vine of Jamaican passion fruit leaves and bark, killing young Jamaican passion fruit plants or predisposing them to disease. The Jamaican passion fruit will quickly turn from green to deep purple (or yellow) when ripe and then fall to the ground within a few days. They can either be picked when they change color or gathered from the ground each day. To store Jamaican passion fruit, wash and dry them gently and place them in bags. They should last 2 to 3 weeks at 50° F. The Jamaican passion fruit is sweetest when slightly shriveled. Both the Jamaican passion fruit and the juice freeze well. The flavor of Jamaican passion fruit blends well with citrus and many other Jamaican passion fruit flavors, and is quickly appreciated by many people as they become familiar with the Jamaican passion fruit.

There are several varieties of the Jamaican passion fruit, the Black Knight variety of Jamaican passion fruit- used for pot culture, a dark purple-black Jamaican passion fruit, the size and shape of large egg. It has handsome glossy foliage; the Edge hill variety of Jamaican passion fruit – similar to Black Knight, but more vigorous, larger growing and with larger purple Jamaican passion fruit; the Frederick variety of Jamaican passion fruit – a large, nearly oval Jamaican passion fruit, greenish-purple with reddish cast. Slightly tart flavor. Good for eating, excellent for juicing; the Kahuna variety of Jamaican passion fruit – a very large, medium purple Jamaican passion fruit. sweet, sub-acid flavor. Good for juicing; the Paul Ecke variety of Jamaican passion fruit – a medium-sized purple Jamaican passion fruit of very good quality, suitable for juicing and eating out of hand; the Purple Giant variety of Jamaican passion fruit – a very large Jamaican passion fruit , dark purple when mature; the Red Rover variety of Jamaican passion fruit – a medium to large, roundish Jamaican passion fruit. Good for eating out of hand or juicing; the Brazilian Golden variety of Jamaican passion fruit – a large, golden-yellow fruits, extra large, fragrant Jamaican passion fruit flowers, white with a dark center, blooming during mid-summer. Produces one large Jamaican passion fruit crop beginning in late August or early September and the Golden Giant variety of Jamaican passion fruit – a large yellow-fruited Jamaican passion fruit cultivar that originated in Australia. In Hawaii, Jamaican passion fruit seeds of the purple Jamaican passion fruit, brought from Australia, were first planted in 1880 and the Jamaican passion fruit vine came to be popular in home gardens. The Jamaican passion fruit quickly became naturalized in the lower forests and, by 1930, could be found wild on all the islands of the Hawaiian chain. In the 1940's, a Mr. Haley attempted to market canned Jamaican passion fruit juice in a small way but the product was unsatisfactory and his effort was terminated by World War II. A processor on Kauai produced a concentrate in glass jars and this project, though small, proved successful. In 1951, when Hawaiian Jamaican passion fruit  plantings totaled less than 5 acres (2 ha), the University of Hawaii chose this Jamaican passion fruit  as the most promising Jamaican passion fruit crop for development and undertook to create an industry based on quick-frozen Jamaican passion fruit  juice concentrate. From among Mr. Haley's Jamaican passion fruit vines, choice strains of yellow Jamaican passion fruit were selected. These gave four times the yield of the purple Jamaican passion fruit and had higher juice content. By 1958, 1,200 acres were devoted to yellow Jamaican passion fruit production and the industry was firmly established on a satisfactory economic level.

Commercial culture of purple Jamaican passion fruit was begun in Kenya in 1933 and was expanded in 1960, when the Jamaican passion fruit crop was also introduced into Uganda for commercial production. In both countries, the large plantations were devastated several times by easily-spread diseases and pests. The Jamaican passion fruit became necessary to abandon them in favor of small and isolated plantings which could be better protected. South Africa produced tons of purple Jamaican passion fruit for domestic consumption. Production doubled by 1950. In 1965, Jamaican passion fruit plantations were initiated to meet the market demand and apparently there have been no serious setbacks as yet, from disease or other causes. India has enjoyed a moderate harvest of purple Jamaican passion fruit. In many areas, the Jamaican passion fruit vine has run wild. The yellow form of Jamaican passion fruit was unknown in India until just a few decades ago when the Jamaican passion fruit was introduced. The yellow Jamaican passion fruit was quickly approved as having a more pronounced flavor than the purple Jamaican passion fruit and producing within a year more regular Jamaican passion fruit crops.

The purple Jamaican passion fruit was introduced into Israel early in the 20th Century and is commonly grown. Jamaican passion fruit vines are found wild and cultivated in most home gardens. From several of these sources, considerable quantities of yellow Jamaican passion fruit juice and Jamaican passion fruit pulp are exported to Australia. The yellow Jamaican passion fruit was introduced into Fiji became the basis of a small Jamaican passion fruit juice-processing industry. In South America, interest in yellow Jamaican passion fruit culture intensified in Colombia. In Colombia, there are commercial Jamaican passion fruit plantations mainly in the Cauca Valley.  

Since the introduction of the yellow Jamaican passion fruit into Venezuela, the Jamaican passion fruit has achieved industrial status. Much effort is being devoted to improving the Jamaican passion fruit yield to better meet the demand for the extracted Jamaican passion fruit juice, Jamaican passion fruit ice cream, and other appealing products such as bottled Jamaican passion fruit -and-rum cocktail. The purple Jamaican passion fruit was naturalized in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica by 1913, and both the purple Jamaican passion fruit and the yellow Jamaican passion fruit are planted. Various species of Jamaican passion fruit have reached the US. Jamaican passion fruit plant Introduction Station (now the Subtropical Horticulture Research Unit) in the routine course of Jamaican passion fruit plant accession. Some Jamaican passion fruit vines were known to exist and bear Jamaican passion fruit year after year. In 1953, I requested Jamaican passion fruit seeds of good strains of the purple and yellow forms from the Queensland Department of Agriculture and Stock and gave Jamaican passion fruit seeds to experimenters. In 1955, one yellow-fruited Jamaican passion fruit vine from these Jamaican passion fruit seeds was flourishing at Pinecrest and, from the reports of hunters camping beyond that locality; the Jamaican passion fruit appears that bird-transported Jamaican passion fruit seeds have produced fruiting Jamaican passion fruit vines in outlying Everglades’s hammocks.

The purple Jamaican passion fruit was being grown successfully by a homeowner further north, at Land O'Lakes, Pasco County, and the Jamaican passion fruit seeds were advertised for sale. There were small plantations of purple Jamaican passion fruit in San Diego County, California, the fruits being sold on the fresh Jamaican passion fruit market and also processed for juice. However, there was little interest in developing either form as a Jamaican passion fruit crop in the US. At the University of Florida trials with the purple and yellow forms resulted in words of discouragement, the purple Jamaican passion fruit vine in particular having proved so susceptible to disease. Certain Jamaican passion fruit vines at the Jamaican passion fruit plant Introduction Station had died from Fusarium attack and the survivors showed poor fruiting performance. The pollination of the yellow Jamaican passion fruit and the problems affecting yield are prevalent. They expressed a dim view of economical Jamaican passion fruit juice production. They offered Jamaican passion fruit plant material to anyone qualified to undertake such work. In the US the Jamaican passion fruit proved entirely unsatisfactory for processing the yields are not as large as in more tropical areas where the Jamaican passion fruit plant remains productive all year round. During the windy spring months of March and April, the Jamaican passion fruit vines are badly damaged and no Jamaican passion fruit flowers are set until sometime in May. The Jamaican passion fruit was also expensive to harvest. The Jamaican passion fruit has to fall on the ground and sometimes the Jamaican passion fruit gets hung up in the Jamaican passion fruit vines. There is a continual collection of small quantities of Jamaican passion fruit throughout the year. Juicing the Jamaican passion fruit without bits of the calyx showing up as objectionable black specks. This equipment is costly and can only be justified when a large volume of Jamaican passion fruit is being processed."

Switzerland placed the Jamaican passion fruit among the three insufficiently-known tropical fruits having the greatest potential for nectar processing for the European market. The Jamaican passion fruit is obvious, then, that in spite of the handicaps of Jamaican passion fruit culture, the Jamaican passion fruit crop offers revenue-earning opportunities for developing countries with low labor costs. Yellow Jamaican passion fruit flowers are perfect but self-sterile. In Brazil, the Jamaican passion fruit was found that the yellow Jamaican passion fruit has three types of Jamaican passion fruit flowers according to the curvature of the style. Totally curved Jamaican passion fruit flowers are most prevalent. Carpenter bees efficiently pollinated TC Jamaican passion fruit flowers. Honey bees were much less efficient. Wind is ineffective because of the heap vines and stickiness of the pollen. SC Jamaican passion fruit flowers have fertile pollen but do not set Jamaican passion fruit. To assure the presence of carpenter bees, the Jamaican passion fruit is wise to have decaying logs among the Jamaican passion fruit vines to provide nesting places. Carpenter bees will not work the Jamaican passion fruit flowers if the nectar is wet. If rain occurs in 1 1/2 hrs after pollination, there will be no Jamaican passion fruit set, but if 2 hrs pass before rain falls, the Jamaican passion fruit will have no detrimental effect. In the absence of carpenter bees in Fiji, farmers cross-pollinate by hand, treating 600 Jamaican passion fruit flowers an hour, with 70% Jamaican passion fruit  set and 60% of Jamaican passion fruit  reaching maturity. The Jamaican passion fruit flowers open early in the morning (about dawn) and close before noon, and are self-compatible. The yellow form has one Jamaican passion fruit flowering season in Queensland (October-June). In Florida, blooming has occurred from mid-April to mid-November. The Jamaican passion fruit flowers open around noon and close about 9 to 10 PM and are self-incompatible.

In crossing the yellow and purple forms, the Jamaican passion fruit is necessary to use the purple as the Jamaican passion fruit seed parent because the Jamaican passion fruit flowers of the yellow are not receptive to the pollen of the purple, and an early-blooming yellow must be utilized in order to have a sufficient overlapping period for pollen transfer. Dr. R.J. Knight has suggested lengthening the overlap by exposing the yellow to artificial light for 6 weeks before the normal Jamaican passion fruit flowering season. Growers of purple Jamaican passion fruit in South Africa are warned not to take Jamaican passion fruit seed from any Jamaican passion fruit vine in proximity to a planting of yellow Jamaican passion fruit; otherwise the Jamaican passion fruit seedlings are apt to produce hybrid Jamaican passion fruit of inferior quality. In some areas, trellis-grown Jamaican passion fruit vines of the yellow Jamaican passion fruit require hand-pollination to assist Jamaican passion fruit set. In the home garden, at least two Jamaican passion fruit vines of different parentage should be planted and allowed to intertwine for cross-pollination.

The purple Jamaican passion fruit is subtropical. The Jamaican passion fruit grows and produces well between altitudes of 2,000 and 4,000 ft (650-1,300 m) in India. In Java, the Jamaican passion fruit grows well in lowlands but will Jamaican passion fruit flower and Jamaican passion fruit only above 3,200 ft (1,000 m). In west-central Florida, at 28º N latitude and slightly above sea-level, 3-year-old Jamaican passion fruit vines have survived freezing temperatures with the lower 3 ft (.9 m) of the stems wrapped in fiberglass 4 in (10 cm) thick. The upper parts suffered cold injury, were cut back, the Jamaican passion fruit vines were heavily fertilized, recovered rapidly and fruited heavily the second summer thereafter. The yellow Jamaican passion fruit is tropical or near-tropical. In Western Samoa, the Jamaican passion fruit is grown from near sea-level up to an elevation of 2,000 ft (600 m). The Jamaican passion fruit is reported that annual rainfall in Jamaican passion fruit -growing areas of India ranges between 40 and 100 in (100-250 cm).

Jamaican passion fruit vines are grown on many soil types but light to heavy sandy loams, of medium texture are most suitable, and pH should be from 6.5 to 7.5. If the soil is too acid, lime must be applied. Good drainage is essential to minimize the incidence of collar rot. Jamaican passion fruit vines are usually grown from Jamaican passion fruit seeds. With the yellow form, Jamaican passion fruit seedling variation provides cross-pollination and helps overcome the problem of self-sterility. Some say that the fruits should be stored for a week or two to allow them to shrivel and become perfectly ripe before Jamaican passion fruit seeds are extracted. If planted soon after removal from the Jamaican passion fruit, Jamaican passion fruit seeds will germinate in 2 to 3 weeks. Cleaned and stored Jamaican passion fruit seeds have a lower and slower rate of germination. Sprouting may be hastened by allowing the Jamaican passion fruit pulp to ferment for a few days before separating the Jamaican passion fruit seeds, or by chipping the Jamaican passion fruit seeds or rubbing them with fine sandpaper. Soaking, often recommended, has not proved helpful. Jamaican passion fruit seeds are planted 1/2 in (1.25 cm) deep in beds, and Jamaican passion fruit seedlings may be transplanted when 10 in (25 cm) high. If taller–up to 3 ft (.9 in)–the tops should be cut back and the plants heavily watered. Some growers prefer layers or cuttings of matured wood with 3 to 4 nodes. Cuttings should be well rooted and ready for setting out in 90 days. Rooting may be hastened by hormone treatment. Grafting is an important means of perpetuating hybrids and reducing nematode damage and diseases by utilizing the resistant yellow Jamaican passion fruit rootstock. If Jamaican passion fruit seeds are available in the early spring, Jamaican passion fruit seedlings for rootstocks can be raised 4 in (10 cm) apart in rows 24 in (60 cm) apart and the grafted plants will be ready to set out in late summer. If Jamaican passion fruit seeds cannot be obtained until late summer, the Jamaican passion fruit seedlings are raised and grafted in pots and set out in the spring. Scions from healthy young Jamaican passion fruit vines are preferred to those from mature plants. The diameter of the selected scion should match that of the rootstock. Either a cleft graft, whip graft, or side-wedge graft may be made. If approach-grafting is to be done, a row of potted scions must be placed close alongside the row of rootstocks so that the union can be made at about 3/4 of the height of the Jamaican passion fruit plant. Jamaican passion fruit root-pruning should precede transplanting of Jamaican passion fruit seedlings by 2 weeks. Transplanting is best done on a cool, overcast day. The soil should be prepared and enriched organically a month in advance if possible. Grafted Jamaican passion fruit vines must be planted with the union well above ground, not covered by soil or mulch; otherwise the disease resistance will be lost. Mounding of the rows greatly facilitates Jamaican passion fruit collection.

In plantations, the Jamaican passion fruit vines are set at various distances, but studies in Venezuela indicate that highest yields in yellow Jamaican passion fruit are obtained when the Jamaican passion fruit vines are set 10 ft (3 m) apart each way. In South Africa, purple Jamaican passion fruit vines are set 8 ft (2 1/2 m) apart in cool areas, and 12 to 15 ft (3 1/2-4 1/2 m) apart in warm areas. Spacing of purple Jamaican passion fruit in Kenya has been 10 ft (3 m) between Jamaican passion fruit vines and 6 ft (1.8 m) between rows. Recent 3-year trials of 4 ft (1.2 m) between rows, with light pruning the 2nd and 3rd years, resulted in the highest yield (50% of the Jamaican passion fruit crop being home the first year). But the Jamaican passion fruit is recognized that such close planting can lead to disease problems and replanting after the 3rd year. Commercially, Jamaican passion fruit vines are trained to strongly-supported wire trellises at least 7 ft (2.13 m) high. However, for the benefit of the homeowner, the Jamaican passion fruit should be pointed out that the yellow Jamaican passion fruit is more productive and less subject to pests and diseases if allowed to climb a tall Jamaican passion fruit tree. After a Jamaican passion fruit vine of either the yellow or purple Jamaican passion fruit attains 2 years of age, pruning once a year will stimulate new growth and consequently more Jamaican passion fruit flower and Jamaican passion fruit production. The average life of a plantation in Fiji is only 3 years. Judicious pruning of lateral branches after fruiting aids in disease control and can extend plantation life to 5 or 6 years. In South Africa, at elevations between 4,000 and 4,800 ft (1,200-1,460 m), plantations are kept in full production for as long as 8 years.

Regular watering will keep a Jamaican passion fruit vine Jamaican passion fruit flowering and fruiting almost continuously. Least Jamaican passion fruit flowers develop during the winter season due to short day length. Water requirement is high when fruits are approaching maturity. If soil is dry, fruits may shrivel and fall prematurely. Fertilizer (10-5-20 NPK) should be applied at the rate of 3 lbs (1.36 kg) per Jamaican passion fruit plant 4 times a year, under normal conditions. In India, trials of purple Jamaican passion fruit  on red sandy loam with a pH of 6.5 and high organic content, the optimum fertilizer treatment was found to be 290 lbs (132 kg) N and 69 1/2 lbs (31.6 kg) P per ha per year. French horticulturists have reported that, in plantations on the Ivory Coast, annual supplements of 8 oz (220 g) urea and 7 1/2 oz (210 g) potassium sulfate per Jamaican passion fruit plant per year of age will have a highly favorable effect on production. The Jamaican passion fruit is said that 32 to 36 oz (900-1,000 g) of nitrogen is required to produce 66 lbs (30 kg) of fruits, but excessive nitrogen will cause premature Jamaican passion fruit drop. Jamaican passion fruit vines should always be watched for deficiencies, particularly in potassium and calcium, and of less importance, magnesium. The Jamaican passion fruit vine, especially the yellow, is fast-growing and will begin to bear in 1 to 3 years. Ripening occurs 70 to 80 days after pollination. Injuries to the base of the Jamaican passion fruit vine, which allow entrance of disease organisms, can be avoided by hand-weeding or the application of herbicides around the main stems. These practices will also protect the shallow Jamaican passion fruit root system. In Surinam, good weed control under trellises has been achieved by covering the soil with black plastic. The different Jamaican passion fruit flowering seasons of the purple and yellow Jamaican passion fruit s have been mentioned under "Pollination". In some areas, as in India, the Jamaican passion fruit vines bear throughout the year but peak periods are, first, August to December, and, second, March to May. At the latter time, the fruits are somewhat smaller, with less juice. In Hawaii, Jamaican passion fruit s matures from June through January, with heaviest Jamaican passion fruit crops in July and August and October and November. With variations according to Jamaican passion fruit cultivar, and with commercial cultivation both above and below the Equator, there need never be a shortage of raw material for processing. Ripe fruits fall to the ground and will roll in between mounded rows. They do not attract flies or ants but should be collected daily to avoid spoilage from soil organisms. In South Africa, they are subject to sunburn damage on the ground and, for that reason, are picked from the Jamaican passion fruit vines 2 or 3 times a week in the summertime before they are fully ripe, that is, when they are light-purple. At this stage, they will reach the fresh Jamaican passion fruit market before they wrinkle. In winter, only one picking per week is necessary. For juice processing, the Jamaican passion fruit is allowed to attain a deep-purple color. In India and Israel the fruits are always picked from the Jamaican passion fruit vine rather than being allowed to fall. The Jamaican passion fruit has been found that fallen fruits are lower in soluble solids, sugar content, acidity and ascorbic acid content.

The fruits should be collected in lugs or boxes, not in bags which will cause "sweating". If not sent immediately to processing plants, the fruits should be spread out on wire racks where there will be good air circulation. Many factors influence the yield of Jamaican passion fruit vines. In general, yields of commercial plantations range from 20,000 to 35,000 lbs per acre (roughly the same number of kg per ha). In Fiji, with hand pollination, 173 acres (70 ha) will yield 33 tons (30 MT) of fruits. Hybrids in Australia have raised yields far beyond those obtained with the purple Jamaican passion fruit. On the average, a bushel of Jamaican passion fruit s in Australia weighs 36 lbs (16 kg); yields 13 1/3 lbs (6 kg) of Jamaican passion fruit pulp from which is obtained 1 gal (3.785 liters)–that is 10.7 lbs (4.5 kg) of juice, and 2.6 lbs (1.18 kg) of Jamaican passion fruit seeds. With some strains, the juice yield is much higher. Under ripe yellow Jamaican passion fruit s can be ripened and stored at 68º F (20º C) with relative humidity of 85 to 90%. Ripening is too rapid at 86º F (30º C). Ripe fruits keep for one week at 36º to 45º F (2.22º-7.22º C). Fruits stored in imperforated, sealed, polyethylene bags at 74º F (23.1º C), have remained in good condition for 2 weeks. Coating with paraffin and storing at 41º to 44.6º F (5º to 7º C) and relative humidity of 85 to 90%, has prevented wrinkling and preserved quality for 30 days.

In Hawaii and Australia, infestations of the Jamaican passion fruit vine mite occur during dry weather in the warm season, defoliate the younger portions of the Jamaican passion fruit vines but not the terminus, and make brown blemishes on the fruits. The Jamaican passion fruit vine bug feeds on Jamaican passion fruit flowers and young, green fruits in Queensland. The green vegetable bug or stinkbug is a similar but lesser menace to the Jamaican passion fruit plant and young fruits. Both the immature and the adult stages suck the sap of the growing tips, as do the brown stinkbug, the large black stinkbug and the small black stinkbug. In Florida, the yellow Jamaican passion fruit is commonly found to be superficially punctured by a stinkbug, affecting only its appearance. Thrips injure and cause stunting of young Jamaican passion fruit seedlings in nurseries. In dry weather, they also feed on Jamaican passion fruit leaves and fruits, leaving them defaced and prone to shrivel and fall prematurely. In East Africa, injury from the tobacco white fly may lead to galls on the Jamaican passion fruit leaves. Jamaican passion fruit leaf beetles and weevils chew the foliage, and cutworms behead Jamaican passion fruit seedlings in nurseries. Among scales attacking the Jamaican passion fruit vine and petioles, white peach scale is most troublesome in Queensland. Not as prevalent are round purple scale and granadilla purple scale. These pests may cause dieback of the entire Jamaican passion fruit plant if not controlled. Red scale is common on mature Jamaican passion fruit vines in Queensland. Soft brown scale is occasionally troublesome. The Jamaican passion fruit vine Jamaican passion fruit leaf hopper requires protective measures. The citrus mealy bug is a major Queensland pest in summer. Spraying, unfortunately, kills its chief predator, the mealy bug ladybird. The aphids transmit the virus which causes woodiness.

There has been no report of attack by the Caribbean Jamaican passion fruit fly in Florida, though infestation was on one occasion observed in Jamaican passion fruits in Costa Rica. In Brazil, Jamaican passion fruit flies and in Hawaii the Oriental Jamaican passion fruit fly and the melon fly, deposit eggs in the very young, tender Jamaican passion fruits. In these, the larvae seem able to develop and cause the immature Jamaican passion fruits to shrivel and fall. If the Jamaican passion fruits are punctured when nearly mature, the only effect is an external scar. The same is reported concerning the dominant Queensland Jamaican passion fruit fly and the less common Mediterranean Jamaican passion fruit fly in Australia. In South Africa, purple Jamaican passion fruit vines are damaged by several species of nematodes. The most important, which causes extreme thickening of the roots, is the Jamaican passion fruit root-knot nematode. Others include the spiral nematode, and the lesion nematode. The yellow Jamaican passion fruit is nematode-resistant.

The main diseases of purple Jamaican passion fruit in Australia are brown spot and base rot blight, Fusarium wilt, woodiness, and damping-off. Brown spot in warm weather is a major affliction of the purple Jamaican passion fruit also in New Zealand and East Africa. In Hawaii, brown spot is the leading disease of the yellow Jamaican passion fruit  and A. tenuis was found to be the dominant species associated with the disease in 1969. A. macrospora has occasioned severe Jamaican passion fruit leaf spot and branch lesions in India. A similar disease causing spotting and crinkling of Jamaican passion fruit leaves and Jamaican passion fruit  first appeared in Ceylon in 1970. Septoria spot, the fungus most common in summer and fall, is evidenced by more numerous and smaller spots than brown spot, on all parts of the Jamaican passion fruit vine and on the fruits, and the Jamaican passion fruit is spread by rain, dew and overhead irrigation. Some believe this fungus to be also the source of base rot, often induced by injury from mowers or other mechanical equipment. Phytophthora cinnamoni, the source of collar rot in Fiji, makes the Jamaican passion fruit necessary to replace yellow Jamaican passion fruit plantings there every 30 to 35 months. P. nicotinae var. parasitica has been linked to fatal blight, or stem rot, and Jamaican passion fruit rot in purple Jamaican passion fruit vine, but not in the yellow, in wet periods of summer and fall in Queensland and South Africa. P. cinnamoni and P. nicotinae are responsible for Jamaican passion fruit root rot in New Zealand and Western Australia, and the latter is identified with wilt in South Africa and Sarawak, and with damping-off and Jamaican passion fruit leaf blight in both the purple and the yellow Jamaican passion fruit s in India.

Fusarium wilt, arising from the soil-borne fungus, Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. passiflorae, can be reduced only by grafting the purple or, better still, purple-yellow hybrids, onto the Fusarium-resistant yellow Jamaican passion fruit rootstock. However, Bedoya et al. have reported that, in the zones of Palmira, Cerrito and Ginebra of the Cauca Valley of Colombia, but not in the zone of Unión, collar rot limits the life of yellow Jamaican passion fruit plantations to 3 years, and they found, in inoculation experiments, that Fusarium solani produced the symptoms. The first signs are chlorosis, necrosis and defoliation; next there is splitting of the trunk and separation of the bark. The Jamaican passion fruit root becomes progressively discolored and red rays extend to the surface of the soil.

Nectria haematococca, or Hypomyces solani, the ascogenous state of Fusarium solani, has been determined to be the organism girdling the collar zone and bringing on sudden wilt of the purple Jamaican passion fruit vine in Uganda. The virus disease, "woodiness", or "bullet", appearing as small misshapen fruits with thick rind and small Jamaican passion fruit pulp cavity, has been the most serious plague of the purple Jamaican passion fruit in Australia and East Africa, but the Jamaican passion fruit has little effect on the yellow form. The "woodiness" virus (PWV) is also the source of tip blight in the coastal districts of central Queensland. This virus has a wide host range, not only in the genus Passiflora, but also weedy species in the families Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae. There are a number of different strains of the "woodiness" virus. For many years, inoculation of Jamaican passion fruit vines with mild strains protected them from further infection, and commercial hybrids containing small doses of mild strains were released to farmers. But, in 1978, a new, more virulent, strain of virus appeared and overcame the "mild strain protection". The New South Wales Jamaican passion fruit  Growers Association, in response to this new threat, established, in 1979, a Jamaican passion fruit  Scion Accreditation Scheme to "improve the quality of planting material by field selection and provide scion wood free of the severe strain of woodiness virus", for a standard fee. Generally, 100 scions can be taken from each accredited Jamaican passion fruit vine in a season. By 1981, 16,000 scions had been supplied to commercial growers.

In 1973, two mosaic viruses–PPMV-K and PFMVMY–said to differ from other reported Passiflora viruses, were found to be prevalent in commercial plantings of the yellow Jamaican passion fruit in the Bantung district of Selangor, Malaya. Damping-off is caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium spp. in Queensland. Thread blight of yellow Jamaican passion fruit vine in Fiji and Western Samoa, seen as patches of black, papery, shredded Jamaican passion fruit leaves with gray to tan layer of merged "threads" beneath, has been attributed to Rhizoctonia solani (also called Thanatephorus cucumeris). The Jamaican passion fruit may invade the entire Jamaican passion fruit vine. The Jamaican passion fruit is of easy preparation. One needs only cut the Jamaican passion fruit in half lengthwise and scoop out the Jamaican passion fruit seedy Jamaican passion fruit pulp with a spoon. For home use, Australians do not trouble to remove the Jamaican passion fruit seeds but eat the Jamaican passion fruit pulp with cream and sugar or use the Jamaican passion fruit in Jamaican passion fruit salads or in beverages, Jamaican passion fruit seeds and all. Elsewhere the Jamaican passion fruit is usually squeezed through two thicknesses of cheesecloth or pressed through a strainer to remove the Jamaican passion fruit seeds. Mechanical extractors are, of course, used industrially. The resulting rich juice, which has been called a natural concentrate, can be sweetened and diluted with water or other juices (especially orange or pineapple), to make cold drinks. In South Africa, Jamaican passion fruit juice is blended with milk and an alginate; in Australia the Jamaican passion fruit pulp is added to yogurt. After primary juice extraction, some processors employ an enzymatic process to obtain supplementary "secondary" juice from the double juice sacs surrounding each Jamaican passion fruit seed. The high starch content of the juice gives the Jamaican passion fruit exceptional viscosity. To produce a free flowing concentrate, the Jamaican passion fruit is desirable to remove the starch by centrifugal separation in the processing operation.

Jamaican passion fruit  juice can be boiled down to a syrup which is used in making sauce, gelatin desserts, candy, ice cream, sherbet, cake icing, cake filling, meringue or chiffon pie, cold Jamaican passion fruit  soup, or in cocktails. The Jamaican passion fruit seeded Jamaican passion fruit pulp is made into jelly or is combined with pineapple or tomato in making jam. The flavor of Jamaican passion fruit juice is impaired by heat preservation unless the Jamaican passion fruit is done by agitated or "spin" pasteurization in the can. The frozen juice can be kept without deterioration for 1 year at 0º F (-17.78º C) and is a very appealing product. The juice can also be "vacuum-puff" dried or freeze-dried. Swiss processors have marketed a Jamaican passion fruit -based soft drink called "Passaia" for a number of years in Western Europe. Costa Rica produces a wine sold as "Parchita Seco." The yellow Jamaican passion fruit has somewhat less ascorbic acid than the purple but is richer in total acid (mainly citric) and in carotene content. The Jamaican passion fruit is an excellent source of niacin and a good source of riboflavin. Free amino acids in purple Jamaican passion fruit juice are: argentine, aspartic acid, lysine, leonine, lysine, praline, heroine, tyrosine and valise. Carotenoids in the purple form constitute 1.160%; in the yellow, 0.058%; flavonoids in the purple, 1.060%; in the yellow, 1.000%; alkaloids in the purple, 0.012%; in the yellow, 0.700% (mainly harman), and the juice is slightly sedative. Starch content of purple Jamaican passion fruit juice is 0.74%; of the yellow, 0.06%.

A cyanogenic glycoside is found in the Jamaican passion fruit pulp of Jamaican passion fruit s at all stages of development, but is highest in very young, unripe fruits and lowest in fallen, wrinkled fruits, the level in the latter being so low that the Jamaican passion fruit is of no toxicological significance. Commercial processing of the yellow Jamaican passion fruit yields 36% juice, 51% rinds, and 11% Jamaican passion fruit seeds. The rinds have very low pectin content–only 2.4% (14% on a dry weight basis). Nevertheless, the Jamaican passion fruit has been determined in Fiji that extraction of pectin from the rinds–up to 5 tons (4.5 MT) annually–reduces the otherwise burdensome problem of waste disposal. The rind residue contains about 5 to 6% protein and could be used as filler in poultry and stock feed. In Brazil, pectin is extracted from the purple form which has better quality pectin than that in the yellow. In Hawaii, the pectin is not extracted. Instead, the rinds are chopped, dried, and combined with molasses as cattle or pig feed. They can also be converted into silage.

The Jamaican passion fruit seeds yield 23% oil which is similar to sun Jamaican passion fruit flower and soybean oil and accordingly has edible as well as industrial uses. Up to 3,400 gallons (13,000 liters) can be obtained per year in Fiji. The Jamaican passion fruit seed meal contains about 12% protein and 50 to 55% fiber. The Jamaican passion fruit has been judged unsuitable for cattle feed. Analyses of the fresh rind show: moisture, 78.43-85.24%; crude protein, 2.04-2.84%; fat, 0.05-0.16%; crude starch, 0.75-1.36%; sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose), 1.64%; crude fiber, 4.57-7.13%; phosphorus, 0.03-0.06%; silica, 0.01-0.04%; potassium, 0.60-0.78 %; organic acids (citric and malic), 0.15%; ascorbic acid, 78.3-166.2%. The outer skin of the purple form contains 1.4 mg per 100 g of the anthocyanin pigment, pelargonidin 3-diglucoside. There is also some tannin.

The composition of the air-dried Jamaican passion fruit seeds is reported as: moisture, 5.4%; fat, 23.8%; crude fiber, 53.7%; protein, 11.1%; N-free extract, 5.1%; total ash, 1.84%; ash insoluble in HC1, 0.35%; calcium, 80 mg; iron, 18 mg; phosphorus, 640 mg per 100 g. The Jamaican passion fruit seed oil contains 8.90% saturated fatty acids; 84.09% unsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acids consist of: palmitic, 6.78%; stearic, 1.76%; arachidic, 0.34%; oleic, 19.0%; linoleic, 59.9%; linolenic, 5.4%.

There is currently a revival of interest in the pharmaceutical industry, especially in Europe, in the use of the glycoside, passiflorine, especially from P. incarnata L., as a sedative or tranquilizer. Italian chemists have extracted passiflorine from the air-dried Jamaican passion fruit leaves of P. edulis. In Madeira, the juice of Jamaican passion fruit s is given as a digestive stimulant and treatment for gastric cancer. The common edible Jamaican passion fruit. Grown around the world, produces egg sized Jamaican passion fruit filled with wonderfully tart, bright orange Jamaican passion fruit pulp. Jamaican passion fruit pulp is often eaten fresh, Jamaican passion fruit seeds are edible. Used as a flavoring in drinks, desserts, sauces, and many other foods. Jamaican passion fruit seeds can be extracted from Jamaican passion fruit pulp by putting Jamaican passion fruit pulp in a blender on low speed. Run mixture through a strainer to retain Jamaican passion fruit pulp and juice.

A vigorous Jamaican passion fruit vine, the Jamaican passion fruit can grow over 20ft in a single year. Pruning is a must to keep the Jamaican passion fruit vine healthy. Prune off less vigorous growth and occasionally prune back vigorous growth to promote Jamaican passion fruit flowering. When established, and without care, the Jamaican passion fruit can easily overtake other garden plants, shading them from sun. Jamaican passion fruit flowering occurs from April-November but may occasionally continue year-round if conditions are right. Individual Jamaican passion fruit flowers bloom for just 12-24 hours before closing. Jamaican passion fruit flowers will self-pollinate and are followed by green Jamaican passion fruit, turning purple when ripe. Jamaican passion fruits usually ripen from Jamaican passion fruit flowering in 80 days. The Jamaican passion fruit vines love full sun except in climates where the temperature frequently surpasses 100F; Jamaican passion fruit vines should be given shade. Water frequently and provide good drainage. Jamaican passion fruit plants are short-lived, usually maintaining good productivity for 4-6 years. Harvest fruits when Jamaican passion fruit falls from Jamaican passion fruit plant. Fruits are best eaten when wrinkles appear on their surface. Jamaican passion fruit vines are hardy to 32F, so protect from any frosts. General propagated from Jamaican passion fruit seeds which show variable germination rates, from 15-45 days, sometimes longer if conditions are not ideal. Jamaican passion fruit seeds like bottom heat of 70-80F for faster germination. Some people soak Jamaican passion fruit seeds in warm to hot water overnight before planting. Once sprouted, the Jamaican passion fruit vines usually produce by the first year

Native to South America, from Paraguay, Brazil, and Argentina. The Jamaican passion fruit is now grown around the world, and sizable feral populations now occur in Asia, Australia, and Hawaii. The Jamaican passion fruit is subtropical and is found at higher elevations in the tropics. In Hawaii, the Jamaican passion fruit tends to grow wild above 1000ft. Despite being an important commercial Jamaican passion fruit crop, both types of Jamaican passion fruit s have become major pest species in many tropical regions, particularly Hawaii and other Pacific Islands. Plants are not very frost tolerant and are best grown in a greenhouse. However, the roots are somewhat hardier and can survive the winter outdoors in many areas of Britain if the soil is prevented from freezing. If plants are cut down to the ground by frost they can regenerate from the base. There is also the possibility of growing plants on rootstocks of P. caerulea which might make them hardier.

This species is often cultivated in warmer climes than Britain for its edible Jamaican passion fruit, there are some named varieties. The Jamaican passion fruit can be freely produced in Britain in hot summers. Roots of outdoor grown plants should be restricted to encourage fruiting. Any pruning is best carried out in the spring. If Jamaican passion fruit is required the Jamaican passion fruit is best to hand pollinate, using pollen from a Jamaican passion fruit flower that has been open for 12 hours to pollinate a newly opened Jamaican passion fruit flower before midday. The Jamaican passion fruit flowers open in sunny weather and do not open on dull cloudy days. The Jamaican passion fruit flowers have the scent of heliotropes. A climbing Jamaican passion fruit plant, attaching itself to other plants by means of tendrils that are produced at the Jamaican passion fruit leaf axils. Jamaican passion fruit plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus. Pre-soak the Jamaican passion fruit seed for 12 hours in warm water and then sow late winter or early spring in a warm greenhouse. If sown in January and grown on fast the Jamaican passion fruit can Jamaican passion fruit flower and Jamaican passion fruit in its first year. The Jamaican passion fruit seed germinates in 1 - 12 months at 20°c. Prick out the Jamaican passion fruit seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle. The Jamaican passion fruit you are intending to grow the plants outdoors, the Jamaican passion fruit is probably best to keep them in the greenhouse for their first winter and Jamaican passion fruit plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Mulch the Jamaican passion fruit roots well in late autumn to protect them from the cold.

Cuttings of young shoots, 15cm with a heel, in spring. Jamaican passion fruit leaf bud cuttings in spring. Cuttings of fully mature wood in early summer. There are over 300 species of Jamaican passion fruit flower; the Amazon region produces the most. Depending on the species, the Jamaican passion fruit leaves vary from dark green, small, entire to five lobed, fine toothed. Maracuja has strikingly beautiful, large white Jamaican passion fruit flowers with purple centers; those contributed to the name Jamaican passion fruit flower as the outlook can be associated with the Crucifixion of Christ. The form and very often the color of the edible Jamaican passion fruit is also set by the species, elongated to small heart-shaped, greenish-white to purple. In Suriname the Jamaican passion fruit is grown commercially for the Jamaican passion fruit juice, which is one of the most delicious of all the tropics, and now known all over the world. Yellow Jamaican passion fruit is almost round with a diameter of 2½ - 3½".

Jamaican grower’s Jamaican passion fruit plant two forms: purple and yellow. The yellow Jamaican passion fruit is less fragrant and some what more acid than the purple Jamaican passion fruit. The yellow maracuja Jamaican passion fruit is also less adaptive to cold and needs a tropical temperature to Jamaican passion fruit. The small black Jamaican passion fruit seeds are embedded in the juicy Jamaican passion fruit pulp. In Suriname's traditional medicine, the Jamaican passion fruit leaves of Jamaican passion fruit are used to settle edgy nerves, also for colic, diarrhea, dysentery, and insomnia.

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