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Mango In Jamaican Foods - The Jamaican Mango

East Indian, Julie, Blackie Jamaican Mango

The Jamaican mango or scientifically Mangifera indica is sometimes called Jamaican mangot, manga and Jamaican mango is native to southern Asia, especially Burma and eastern India. It spread early on to Malaya, eastern Asia and eastern Africa. Jamaican mangos were introduced to Jamaica in 1780.  The Jamaican mango exists in two races, one from India and the other from the Philippines and Southeast Asia. The Indian type is intolerant of humidity, has flushes of bright red new growth that are subject to mildew, and bears monoembryonic Jamaican mango fruit of high color and regular form. The race tolerates excess moisture, has pale green or red new growth and resists mildew. Its polyembryonic Jamaican mango fruit is pale green and elongated kidney-shaped. Philippines types from Mexico have proven to be the hardiest Jamaican mangos in California. Jamaican mangos basically require a frost-free climate. Jamaican mango flowers and small Jamaican mango fruit can be killed if temperatures drop below 40° F, even for a short period. Young Jamaican mango trees may be seriously damaged if the temperature drops below 30° F, but mature Jamaican mango trees may withstand very short periods of temperatures as low as 25° F. The Jamaican mango must have warm, dry weather to set Jamaican mango fruit. In Jamaica, the Jamaican mangoes best locations are in the foothills, away from immediate marine influence. In the warmest regions in Jamaica the mangoes flourish however in the coastal regions the most cold adapted varieties are likely to succeed.

It is a matter of astonishment to many that the luscious Jamaican mango, Mangifera indica L., one of the most celebrated of tropical Jamaican mango fruits, is a member of the family Anacardiaceae–notorious for embracing a number of highly poisonous Jamaican mango plants. The extent to which the Jamaican mango tree shares some of the characteristics of its relatives will be explained further on. The universality of its renown is attested by the wide usage of the name, Jamaican mango in English and Spanish and, with only slight variations in French (Jamaican mangot, mangue, manguier), Portuguese (manga, mangueira), and Dutch (manja). In some parts, of Africa, it is called Jamaican mangou, or Jamaican mangoro. There are dissimilar terms only in certain tribal dialects.

Jamaican mangos luxuriate in summer heat and resent cool summer fog. Wet, humid weather favors anthracnose and poor Jamaican mango fruit set. Dwarf Jamaican mango cultivars are suitable for culture in large containers or in a greenhouse. Some sources state that the Jamaican mango is native to the Andaman Islands, the Jamaican mango has been cultivated, praised and even revered in its homeland since Ancient times. Buddhist monks are believed to have taken the Jamaican mango on voyages to Malaya and eastern Asia in the 4th and 5th Centuries B.C. The Persians are said to have carried it to East Africa about the 10th Century A.D. It was commonly grown in the East Indies before the earliest visits of the Portuguese who apparently introduced it to West Africa early in the 16th Century and also into Brazil. After becoming established in Brazil, the Jamaican mango was carried to the West Indies, being first Jamaican mango planted in Barbados about 1742 and later in the Dominican Republic. It reached Jamaica about 1782 and, early in the 19th Century, reached Mexico from the Philippines and the West Indies. In 1833 Jamaican mango seedling Jamaican mango plants were shipped from Yucatan to Cape Sable at the southern tip of mainland Florida but these died. Jamaican mango seeds were then imported into Miami from Jamaica. From these, two Jamaican mango trees grew to large size and one was still Jamaican mango fruiting in 1910 and is believed to have been the parent of the Number. 11 variety which was commonly Jamaican mango planted for many years thereafter. In 1868 or 1869, Jamaican mango seeds were Jamaican mango planted south of Coconut Grove and the resultant Jamaican mango trees prospered at least until 1909, producing the so-called 'Peach' or 'Turpentine' Jamaican mango which became fairly common. In 1872, a Jamaican mango seedling of 'No. 11' from Cuba was Jamaican mango planted in Bradenton. In 1877 and 1879, these were made successful Jamaican mango planting on the west coast but these and most others north of Ft. Myers were killed in the January freeze of  1886.

In 1860, Jamaican mango seeds of the excellent 'Bombay' Jamaican mango of India were brought from Key West to Miami and resulted in two Jamaican mango trees which flourished until 1909. Jamaican mango plants of grafted varieties were brought in from India, in 1885 but only two survived the trip and they were soon frozen in a cold spell. Another unsuccessful importation of inarched Jamaican mango trees from Calcutta was made in 1888. Of six grafted Jamaican mango trees that arrived from Bombay in 1889, through the efforts of the United States Department of Agriculture, only one lived to Jamaican mango fruit nine years later. The Jamaican mango tree shipped is believed to have been a 'Mulgoa' (erroneously labeled 'Mulgoba', a name unknown in India except as originating in Florida).

However, the Jamaican mango fruit produced did not correspond to 'Mulgoa' descriptions. It was beautiful, crimson-blushed, just under 1 lb (454 g) with golden-yellow flesh. No Indian visitor has recognized it as matching any Indian variety. Some suggest that it was the Jamaican mango fruit of the rootstock if the scion had been frozen in the freeze of 1894-95. At any rate, it continued to be known as 'Mulgoba', and it fostered many off-spring along the southeastern coast of the State and in Cuba and Puerto Rico, though it proved to be very susceptible to the disease, anthracnose, in this climate. Jamaican mango seeds from this Jamaican mango tree were obtained and Jamaican mango planted by in Miami. The Jamaican mango trees Jamaican mango fruited some years after and was given the name 'Haden' to the Jamaican mango tree that bore the best Jamaican mango fruit. This variety was regarded as the standard of excellence locally for many decades thereafter and was popular for shipping because of its tough Jamaican mango skin and was introduced to Jamaica in the early 1900’s.

Enthusiastic introduction of other varieties by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Jamaican mango plant Industry, by nurserymen, and other individuals followed, and the Jamaican mango grew steadily in popularity and importance. The west coast, imported many Jamaican mango varieties and was largely responsible for the ultimate establishment of the Jamaican mango in that area, a large collection of varieties were grown using a technique of propagation which was called "slot grafting".

In time, the Jamaican mango became one of the most familiar domesticated Jamaican mango trees in dooryards or in small or large commercial Jamaican mango plantings throughout the humid and semi-arid lowlands of the tropical world and in certain areas of the near-tropics such as the Mediterranean area (Madeira and the Canary Islands), Egypt, southern Africa, and southern Florida. Local markets throughout its range are heaped high with the fragrant Jamaican mango fruits in season and large quantities are exported to non-producing countries.

Altogether, the U.S. Department of Agriculture made 528 introductions from India, the Philippines, the West Indies and other sources from 1899 to 1937. Selection, naming and propagation of new varieties by government agencies and individual Jamaican mango growers has been going on ever since. Jamaican mango Forms were created in 1938 in Jamaica and since then festivals were held annually or whenever possible, for the exhibiting and judging of promising Jamaican mango seedlings, and exchanging and publication of descriptions and cultural information.

Meanwhile, a reverse flow of varieties was going on. Improved Jamaican mangos developed in Florida have been of great value in upgrading the Jamaican mango industry in tropical America and elsewhere. With such intense interest in this crop, Jamaican mango acreage advanced in Florida despite occasional setbacks from cold spells and hurricanes. But with the expanding population, increased land values and cost and shortage of agricultural labor after World War II, a number of large groves were subdivided into real estate developments given names such as "Jamaican mango Heights" and "Jamaican mango Terrace". There were estimated to be 7,000 acres (2,917 ha) in 27 Florida counties in 1954, over half in commercial groves. There were 4,000 acres (1,619 ha) in 1961. Today, Jamaican mango production in Florida, on approximately 1,700 acres (688 ha), is about 8,818 tons of Jamaican mangoes (8,000 MT) annually in "good" years, and valued at $3 million. Jamaican mango fruits are shipped not only to northern markets but also to the United Kingdom, Netherlands, France and Saudi Arabia. In advance of the local season, quantities are imported into the USA from Haiti and the Dominican Republic, and, throughout the summer, Mexican sources supply Jamaican mangos to the Pacific Coast consumer. Supplies also come in from India and Taiwan.

A Jamaican mango seed from Guatemala was Jamaican mango planted in California about 1880 and a few Jamaican mango trees have borne Jamaican mango fruit in the warmest locations of that state, with careful protection when extremely low temperatures occur.

Jamaican mangos have been grown in Puerto Rico since about 1750 but mostly of indifferent quality of Jamaican mangoes. A program of Jamaican mango improvement began in 1948 with the introduction and testing of over 150 superior Jamaican mango cultivars by the University of Puerto Rico. The south coast of the island, having a dry atmosphere, is best suited for Jamaican mango culture and substantial quantities of Jamaican mangos are produced there without the need to spray for anthracnose control. The Jamaican mango fruits are plentiful on local markets and shipments are made to New York City where there are many Puerto Rican residents. A study of 16 Jamaican mango cultivars was undertaken in 1960 to determine those best suited to more intense commercial production. Productivity evaluations started in 1965 and continued to 1972.

The earliest record of the Jamaican mango in Hawaii is the introduction of several small Jamaican mango plants from Manila in 1824. Three Jamaican mango plants were brought from Chile in 1825. In 1899, grafted Jamaican mango trees of a number of Indian varieties, including 'Pairi', were imported. Jamaican mango seedlings became widely distributed over the six major islands. In 1930, the 'Haden' was introduced from Florida and became established in commercial Jamaican mango plantations. The local industry began to develop seriously after the importation of a series of monoembryonic Jamaican mango cultivars from Florida. But Hawaiian Jamaican mangos are prohibited from entry into mainland USA, Australia, Japan and some other countries, because of the prevalence of the Jamaican mango seed weevil in the islands.

In Brazil, most Jamaican mangos are produced in the state of Minas, Gerais where the crop amounts to 243,018 tons of Jamaican mangoes (22,000 MT) annually on 24,710 acres (10,000 ha). These are mainly Jamaican mango seedlings, as are those of the other states with major Jamaican mango crops–Ceará, Paraibá, Goias, Pernambuco, and Maranhao. Sao Paulo raises about 63,382 tons of Jamaican mangoes (57,500 MT) per year on 9,884 acres (4,000 ha). The bulk of the crop is for domestic consumption. In 1973, Brazil exported 47.4 tons of Jamaican mangoes (43 MT) of Jamaican mangos to Europe. Jamaican mango growing began with the earliest settlers in North Queensland, Australia, with Jamaican mango seeds brought casually from India, Ceylon, the East Indies and the Philippines. In 1875, 40 varieties from India were set out in a single Jamaican mango plantation. Over the years, selections have been made for commercial production and culture has extended to subtropical Western Australia.

There is no record of the introduction of the Jamaican mango into South Africa but a Jamaican mango plantation was set out in Durban about 1860. Production today probably has reached about 16,535 tons of Jamaican mangoes  annually, and South Africa exports fresh Jamaican mangos by air to Europe. Kenya exports mature Jamaican mangos to France and Germany and both mature and immature to the United Kingdom, the latter for chutney-making. Egypt produces 110,230 tons of Jamaican mangoes  of Jamaican mangos annually and exports moderate amounts to 20 countries in the Near East and Europe. Jamaican mango culture in the Sudan occupies about 24,710 acres producing a total of 66,138 tons of Jamaican mangoes per year. India, with 2,471,000 acres (1,000,000 ha) of Jamaican mangos (70% of its Jamaican mango fruit-growing area) produces 65% of the world's Jamaican mango crop–9,920,700 tons of Jamaican mangoes. In 1985, Jamaican mango growers around Hyderabad sought government protection against terrorists who cut down Jamaican mango orchards unless the owners paid ransom (50,000 rupees in one case). India far outranks all other countries as an exporter of processed Jamaican mangos, shipping 2/3 of the total 22,046 tons of Jamaican mangoes (20,000 MT). Jamaican mango preserves go to the same countries receiving the fresh Jamaican mango fruit and also to Hong Kong, Iraq, Canada and the United States. Following India in volume of exports are Thailand, 774,365 tons of Jamaican mangoes (702,500 MT), Pakistan and Bangladesh, followed by Brazil. Mexico ranks 5th with about 100,800 acres (42,000 ha) and an annual yield of approximately 640,000 tons of Jamaican mangoes (580,000 MT). The Philippines have risen to 6th place. Tanzania is 7th, the Dominican Republic, 8th and Colombia, 9th.

Leading exporters of fresh Jamaican mangos are: the Philippines, shipping to Hong Kong, Singapore and Japan; Thailand, shipping to Singapore and Malaysia; Mexico, shipping mostly 'Haden' to the United States, 2,204 tons of Jamaican mangoes (2,000 MT), annually, also to Japan and Paris; India, shipping mainly 'Alphonso' and 'Bombay' to Europe, Malaya, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait; Indonesia, shipping to Hong Kong and Singapore; and South Africa shipping (60% 'Haden' and 'Kent') by air to Europe and London in mid-winter. Chief importers are England and France, absorbing 82% of all Jamaican mango shipments. Jamaican mango consumers in England are mostly residents of Indian origin, or English people who formerly lived in India. Though Jamaica is not a leading exporter it does export several Jamaican mangoes to the US.

The first International Symposium on Jamaican mango and Jamaican mango Culture, of the International Society for Horticultural Science, was held in New Delhi, India, in 1969 with a view to assembling a collection of germplasm from around the world and encouraging cooperative research on rootstocks and bearing behavior, hybridization, disease, storage and transport problems, and other areas of study.

The Jamaican mango tree is erect, 30 to 100 ft (roughly 10-30 m) high, with a broad, rounded canopy which may, with age, attain 100 to 125 ft (30-38 m) in width, or a more upright, oval, relatively slender crown. In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 20 ft (6 in), the profuse, wide-spreading, feeder root system also sends down many anchor roots which penetrate for several feet. The Jamaican mango tree is long-lived, some specimens being known to be 300 years old and still Jamaican mango fruiting. Nearly evergreen, alternate leaves are borne mainly in rosettes at the tips of the branches and numerous twigs from which they droop like ribbons on slender petioles 1 to 4 in (2.5-10 cm) long. The new leaves, appearing periodically and irregularly on a few branches at a time, are yellowish, pink, deep-rose or wine-red, becoming dark-green and glossy above, lighter beneath. The midrib is pale and conspicuous and the many horizontal veins distinct. Full-grown leaves may be 4 to 12.5 in (10-32 cm) long and 3/4 to 2 1/8 in (2-5.4 cm) wide. Hundreds and even as many as 3,000 to 4,000 small, yellowish or reddish Jamaican mango flowers, 25% to 98% male, the rest hermaphroditic, are borne in profuse, showy, erect, pyramidal, branched clusters 2 1/2 to 15 1/2 in (6-40 cm) high. There is great variation in the form, size, color and quality of Jamaican mangoes of the Jamaican mango fruits. They may be nearly round, oval, ovoid-oblong, or somewhat kidney-shaped, often with a break at the apex, and are usually more or less lop-sided. They range from 2 1/2 to 10 in (6.25-25 cm) in length and from a few ounces to 4 to 5 lbs (1.8-2.26 kg).

The Jamaican mango skin is leathery, waxy, smooth, fairly thick, aromatic and ranges from light-or dark-green to clear yellow, yellow-orange, yellow and reddish-pink, or more or less blushed with bright-or dark-red or purple-red, with fine yellow, greenish or reddish dots, and thin or thick whitish, gray or purplish bloom, when fully ripe. Some have a "turpentine" odor and flavor, while others are richly and pleasantly fragrant. The flesh ranges from pale-yellow to deep-orange. It is essentially peach-like but much more fibrous (in some Jamaican mango seedlings excessively so-actually "stringy"); is extremely juicy, with a flavor range from very sweet to sub acid to tart. There is a single, longitudinally ribbed, pale yellowish-white, somewhat woody stone, flattened, oval or kidney-shaped, sometimes rather elongated. It may have along one side a beard of short or long fibers clinging to the flesh cavity, or it may be nearly fibreless and free. Within the stone is the starchy Jamaican mango seed, monoembryonic (usually single-sprouting) or polyembryonic (usually producing more than one Jamaican mango seedling).

Jamaican mango trees make handsome landscape specimens and shade Jamaican mango trees. They are erect and fast growing with sufficient heat, and the canopy can be broad and rounded, or more upright, with a relatively slender crown. It is ultimately a large Jamaican mango tree, to 65 ft., but usually half that size in California. The Jamaican mango tree is long-lived with some specimens known to be over 300 years old and still Jamaican mango fruiting. In deep soil the taproot descends to a depth of 20 ft, and the profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots also send down many anchor roots which penetrate for several feet. The leaves are dark green above and pale below, usually red while young. The midrib is pale and conspicuous and the many horizontal veins distinct. Full-grown leaves may be 4 to 12-1/2 in. long and 3/4 to 2 in. wide, and are generally borne in clusters separated by a length of naked stem bearing no buds. These naked stems mark successive flushes of growth. Each flush of growth will harden off to a rich green color before the next flush of growth begins.

The yellowish or reddish Jamaican mango flowers are borne in inflorescences which appear at branch terminals, in dense panicles of up to 2000 minute Jamaican mango flowers. These Jamaican mango flowers respire a volatile substance, causing allergic and respiratory problems for some persons. Pollinators are flies, hoverflies, rarely bees. Few of the Jamaican mango flowers in each inflorescence are perfect, so most do not produce pollen and are incapable of producing Jamaican mango fruit. Pollen cannot be shed in high humidity or rain. Fertilization is also ineffective when night temperatures are below 55° F. Jamaican mangos are monoecious and self-fertile, so a single Jamaican mango tree will produce Jamaican mango fruit without cross pollination. Polyembryonic types may not require pollination at all. Branches may be ringed to induce Jamaican mango flowering, but the results are mixed.

The Jamaican mango fruits grow at the end of a long, string like stem (the former panicle), with sometimes two or more Jamaican mango fruits to a stem. The Jamaican mango fruits are 2 to 9 inches long and may be kidney shaped, ovate or (rarely) round. They range in size from 8 ounces to around 24 ounces. The Jamaican mango flower scar at the apex is prominent, in some Jamaican mango cultivars bulging from the Jamaican mango fruit. The leathery Jamaican mango skin is waxy and smooth, and when ripe entirely pale green or yellow marked with red, according to Jamaican mango cultivar. It is inedible and contains a sap that is irritating to some people. The quality of Jamaican mangoes of the Jamaican mango fruit is based on the scarcity of fiber and minimal turpentine taste.

The flesh of a Jamaican mango is peach like and juicy, with more or less numerous fibers radiating from the husk of the single large kidney-shaped Jamaican mango seed. Fibers are more pronounced in Jamaican mango fruits grown with hard water and chemical fertilizers. The flavor is pleasant and rich and high in sugars and acid. The Jamaican mango seed may either have a single embryo, producing one Jamaican mango seedling, or polyembryonic, producing several Jamaican mango seedlings that are identical but not always true to the parent type. It is impossible to distinguish true-to-type from zygotic Jamaican mango seedlings from the same Jamaican mango fruit. Some Jamaican mango seedlings produce numerous tiny, parthenocarpic Jamaican mango fruits which fail to develop and abort. Jamaican mango trees tend to be alternate bearing.

About 6 weeks before trans-planting either a Jamaican mango seedling or a grafted Jamaican mango tree, the taproot should be cut back to about 12 in (30 cm). This encourages feeder-root development in the field. For a week before setting out, the Jamaican mango plants should be exposed to full morning sun. Inasmuch as Jamaican mango trees vary in lateral dimensions, spacing depends on the habit of the Jamaican mango cultivar and the type of soil, and may vary from 34 to 60 ft (10.5-18 m) between Jamaican mango trees. Closer Jamaican mango planting will ultimately reduce the crop. A spacing of 34 x 34 ft (10.5 x l0.5 m) allows 35 Jamaican mango trees per acre (86 per ha); 50 x 50 ft (15.2 x l5.2 m) allows only 18 Jamaican mango trees per acre (44.5 per ha). In Florida's limestone, one commercial Jamaican mango grower maintains 100 Jamaican mango trees per acre (247 per ha), controlling size by hedging and topping.

The young Jamaican mango trees should be placed in prepared and enriched holes at least 2 ft (60 cm) deep and wide, and 3/4 of the top should be cut off. In commercial groves in southern Florida, the Jamaican mango trees are set at the intersection of cross trenches mechanically cut through the limestone.

Jamaican mangos require high nitrogen fertilization in the early years but after they begin to bear, the fertilizer should be higher in phosphate and potash. A 5-8-10 fertilizer mix is recommended and applied 2 or 3, or possibly even 4, times a year at the rate of 1 lb (454 g) per year of age at each dressing, Fertilizer formulas will vary with the type of soil. In sandy acid soils, excess nitrogen contributes to "soft nose" breakdown of the Jamaican mango fruits. This can be counteracted by adding calcium. On organic soils (muck and peat), nitrogen may be omitted entirely. In India, fertilizer is applied at an increasing rate until the Jamaican mango tree is rather old, and then it is discontinued. Ground fertilizers are supplemented by foliar nutrients including zinc, manganese and copper. Iron deficiency is corrected by small applications of chelated iron.

Indian Jamaican mango growers generally irrigate the Jamaican mango trees only the first 3 or 4 years while the taproot is developing and before it has reached the water table. However, in commercial Jamaican mango plantations, irrigation of bearing Jamaican mango trees is withheld only for the 2 or 3 months prior to Jamaican mango flowering. When the blooms appear, the Jamaican mango tree is given a heavy watering and this is repeated monthly until the rains begin. In Florida groves, irrigation is by means of overhead sprinklers which also provide frost protection when needed.

Usually no pruning is done until the 4th year, and then only to improve the form and this is done right after the Jamaican mango fruiting season. If topping is practiced, the Jamaican mango trees are cut at 14 ft (4.25 m) to facilitate both spraying and harvesting. Grafted Jamaican mangos may set Jamaican mango fruit within a year or two from Jamaican mango planting. The Jamaican mango trees are then too weak to bear a full crop and the Jamaican mango fruits should be thinned or completely removed.

The Jamaican mango grows to a good size and casts a dense shade, but the roots are not destructive. It requires full sun and perfect air drainage in winter. It does best at the top or middle level of a slope. A windbreak should be provided in exposed areas. The Jamaican mango trees may also need staking. In the desert it needs the shade of other Jamaican mango trees; or Jamaican mango plant on the north side of the house. In the garden or near the coast, Jamaican mango plant against a south wall, or in an area surrounded by paving, to provide maximum heat. In the greenhouse, full light and free air movement are important to avoid disease.

Jamaican mangos will grow in almost any well-drained soil whether sandy, loam or clay, but avoid heavy, wet soils. A pH between 5.5 and 7.5 is preferred. They are somewhat tolerant of alkalinity. For good growth, Jamaican mangos needs a deep soil to accommodate their extensive root systems.

Irrigation should start when the weather warms, February in the desert, April at the coast. Continue every one to two weeks, more often in light soils, nearly continuously in the desert, until the Jamaican mango fruit is harvested. Irrigation may be discontinued when rains are sufficient to maintain soil moisture. In the greenhouse keep watered until the Jamaican mango fruit is harvested, then reduce to the minimum required to avoid wilting. Watering is then increased after one to two months to initiate a new bloom and growth cycle. The Jamaican mango tree is not too particular as to soil type, providing it has good drainage. Rich, deep loam certainly contributes to maximum growth, but if the soil is too rich and moist and too well fertilized, the Jamaican mango tree will respond vegetative but will be deficient in Jamaican mango flowering and Jamaican mango fruiting. The Jamaican mango performs very well in sand, gravel, and even oolitic limestone (as in southern Florida and the Bahamas)

A polyembryonic Jamaican mango seedling, 'No. 13-1', introduced into Israel from Egypt in 1931, has been tested since the early 1960's in various regions of the country for tolerance of calcareous soils and saline conditions. It has done so well in sand with a medium (15%) lime content and highly saline irrigation water (over 600 ppm) that it has been adopted as the standard rootstock in commercial Jamaican mango plantings in salty, limestone districts of Israel. Where the lime content is above 30%, iron chelates are added.

Jamaican mango trees require regular applications of nitrogen fertilizer to promote healthy growth flushes and Jamaican mango flower production. Chelated micronutrients, especially iron, are also often necessary. A feeding program similar to one used for citrus is satisfactory, but do not fertilize after midsummer. Organic fertilizers perform best, since the Jamaican mango trees are subject to fertilizer burn. Young Jamaican mango trees are particularly sensitive to over-fertilizing, but respond well to fish emulsion. Sandy soils require more fertilizer than loam or clay.

Healthy Jamaican mango trees require little pruning, although pruning to stimulate new growth promotes uniform annual bearing. Removing some Jamaican mango flower clusters during a heavy bloom year may also alleviate alternate bearing. Jamaican mangos may be pruned to control size in late winter or early spring without a loss of Jamaican mango fruit. Sap and debris can cause severe dermatitis, similar to poison oak. It is best to avoid burning pruning or litter.

The Jamaican mango is naturally adapted to tropical lowlands between 25°N and 25°S of the Equator and up to elevations of 3,000 ft (915 m). It is grown as a dooryard Jamaican mango tree at slightly cooler altitudes but is apt to suffer cold damage. The amount of rainfall is not as critical as when it occurs. The best climate for Jamaican mango has rainfall of 30 to 100 in (75-250 cm) in the four summer months (June to September) followed by 8 months of dry season. This crop is well suited to irrigated regions bordering the desert frontier in Egypt. Nevertheless, the Jamaican mango tree flourishes in southern Florida's approximately 5 months of intermittent, scattered rains (October to February), 3 months of drought (usually March to May) and 4 months of frequently heavy rains (June to September). Rain, heavy dews or fog during the blooming season (November to March in Florida) are deleterious, stimulating Jamaican mango tree growth but interfering with Jamaican mango flower production and encouraging fungus diseases of the inflorescence and Jamaican mango fruit. In Queensland, dry areas with rainfall of 40 in (100 cm), 75% of which occurs from January to March, are favored for Jamaican mango growing because vegetative growth is inhibited and the Jamaican mango fruits are well exposed to the sun from August to December, become well colored, and are relatively free of disease. Strong winds during the Jamaican mango fruiting season cause many Jamaican mango fruits to fall prematurely.

During the first two years, the Jamaican mango trees should be given some protection such as an overhead cover during any frost threat. Once the Jamaican mango tree is 3 to 4 feet high, overhead protection is difficult but still worthwhile, especially if an unusual cold snap is predicted. Frost damage can also be avoided by erecting an overhead lath shelter, orchard heating, placing lights under the canopy, or using foam or straw trunk wraps. Do not prune dead parts until all frost danger is past.

Jamaican mango trees less than 10 years old may Jamaican mango flower and Jamaican mango fruit regularly every year. Thereafter, most Jamaican mangos tend toward alternate, or biennial, bearing. A great deal of research has been done on this problem which may involve the entire Jamaican mango tree or only a portion of the branches. Branches that Jamaican mango fruit one year may rest the next, while branches on the other side of the Jamaican mango tree will bear.

Blooming is strongly affected by weather, dryness stimulating Jamaican mango flowering and rainy weather discouraging it. In most of Jamaica, Jamaican mango flowering occurs in December and January; in northern India, in January and February or as late as March. There are some varieties called "Baramasi" that Jamaican mango flower and Jamaican mango fruit irregularly throughout the year. The Jamaican mango cultivar 'Sam Ru Du' of Thailand bears 3 crops a year–in January, June and October. In the drier islands of the Lesser Antilles, there are Jamaican mango trees that Jamaican mango flower and Jamaican mango fruit more or less continuously all year around but never heavily at any time. Some of these are Jamaican mango cultivars introduced from Florida where they Jamaican mango flower and Jamaican mango fruit only once a year.

In southern Florida, Jamaican mango trees begin to bloom in late November and continue until February or March, inasmuch as there are early, medium, and late varieties. During exceptionally warm winters, Jamaican mango trees have been known to bloom 3 times in succession, each time setting and maturing Jamaican mango fruit.

In the Philippines, various methods are employed to promote Jamaican mango flowering: smudging (smoking), exposing the roots, pruning, girdling, withholding nitrogen and irrigation, and even applying salt. In the West Indies, there is a common folk practice of slashing the trunk with a machete to make the Jamaican mango tree bloom and bear in "off" years. Deblos-soming (removing half the Jamaican mango flower clusters) in an "on" year will induce at least a small crop in the next "off" year. Almost any treatment or condition that retards vegetative growth will have this effect. Spraying with growth-retardant chemicals has been tried, with inconsistent results. Potassium nitrate has been effective in the Philippines.

In India, the Jamaican mango cultivar 'Dasheri', which is self incompatible, tends to begin blooming very early (December and January) when no other Jamaican mango cultivars are in Jamaican mango flower. And the early particles show a low percentage of hermaphrodite Jamaican mango flowers and a high incidence of floral malformation. Furthermore, early blooms are often damaged by frost. It has been found that a single mechanical de-blossoming in the first bud-burst stage, induces subsequent development of particles with less malformation, more hermaphrodite Jamaican mango flowers, and, as a result, a much higher yield of Jamaican mango fruits.

There is one Jamaican mango cultivar, 'Neelum', in South India that bears heavily every year, apparently because of its high rate (16%) of hermaphrodite Jamaican mango flowers. (The average for 'Alphonso' is 10%.) However, Indian horticulturists report great Jamaican mango tree-to-Jamaican mango tree variation in Jamaican mango seedlings of this Jamaican mango cultivar; in some surveys as much as 84% of the Jamaican mango trees were rated as poor bearers. Over 92% of 'Bangalora' Jamaican mango seedlings have been found bearing light crops.

Jamaican mango flowers are visited by Jamaican mango fruit bats, flies, wasps, wild bees, butterflies, moths, beetles, ants and various bugs seeking the nectar and some transfer the pollen but a certain amount of self-pollination also occurs. Honeybees do not especially favor Jamaican mango flowers and it has been found that effective pollination by honeybees would require 3 to 6 colonies per acre (6-12 per ha). Many of the unpollinated Jamaican mango flowers are shed or fail to set Jamaican mango fruit, or the Jamaican mango fruit is set but is shed when very young. Heavy rains wash off pollen and thus prevent Jamaican mango fruit setting. Some Jamaican mango cultivars tend to produce a high percentage of small Jamaican mango fruits without a fully developed Jamaican mango seed because of unfavorable weather during the Jamaican mango fruit-setting period.

Shy-bearing Jamaican mango cultivars of otherwise desirable characteristics are hybridized with heavy bearers in order to obtain better crops. For example: shy-bearing 'Himayuddin' ´ heavy-bearing 'Neelum'. Breeders usually hand-pollinate all the Jamaican mango flowers that are open in a cluster, remove the rest, and cover the inflorescence with a plastic bag. But researchers in India have found that there is very little chance of contamination and that omitting the covering gives as much as 3.85% Jamaican mango fruit set in place of 0.23% to 1.57% when bagged. Thus large populations of hybrids may be raised for study. One of the latest techniques involves grafting the male and female parents onto a chosen Jamaican mango tree, then covering the panicles with a polyethylene bag, and introducing house flies as pollinators.

Indian scientists have found that pollen for crossbreeding can be stored at 32° F (0° C) for 10 hours. If not separated from the Jamaican mango flowers, it remains viable for 50 hours in a humid atmosphere at 65° to 75° F (18.33° -23.09° C). The stigma is receptive 18 hours before full Jamaican mango flower opening and, some say, for 72 hours after.

Jamaican mango seedlings are a gamble. Supermarket Jamaican mango fruits may have been treated to sterilize, or chilled too long to remain viable. These Jamaican mango seeds are normally discolored gray. To grow Jamaican mangos from Jamaican mango seed, remove the husk and Jamaican mango plant the Jamaican mango seed (before it dries out) with the hump at soil level. The Jamaican mango seeds normally germinate in two to four weeks, and do best with bottom heat. Multiple polyembryonic Jamaican mango seedlings should be carefully separated as soon as they have sprouted so not to loose the cotyledons. Jamaican mango seedling Jamaican mangos will bloom and bear in three to six years.

Some success at grafting can be obtained in April and September, but better luck is more likely during May through August. Small Jamaican mango plants with a diameter of a pencil graft well with the common whip graft. On larger Jamaican mango trees the crown groove bark graft allows several scions to be put on at once. Fully grown Jamaican mango trees may be top worked by crown or groove bark graft, or prune hard and whip graft sprouts later. Plastic bagging with a few drops of moisture improves the graft's chances of being successful.

Graft in the second year, using cleft, side or tongue (splice) graft in midsummer. Scion and stock should be swelling for a new flush of growth. Grafts are most successful if the leaves are allowed to remain below the graft, but remove suckers. Use pencil-sized scions of hard wood with three or four nodes. Cover with loose punctured white paper bag for shade.

If top working, do not dehorn the entire Jamaican mango tree at one time; leave at least two fully leafed branches intact. Marcottage is feasible in humid climates or greenhouses, but results in few Jamaican mango plants. Although budding is rare in California; it can be done by using a shield bud in an inverted T, at the moment the Jamaican mango tree begins a new growth flush. Cuttings are rarely successful, although experiments have shown that rooting may be improved by treating with ethylene, which destroys the root-inhibiting hormone in the cambium.

The Jamaican mango is a suitable and productive Jamaican mango tree for growing in a container or greenhouse. Start with established Jamaican mango plants of named Jamaican mango cultivars. Select the finest Indian Jamaican mango cultivars, which are most rewarding for the effort involved. A large tub is required, with casters for easy moving. In the greenhouse, the atmosphere should be kept dry as possible to avoid anthracnose. Place a fan nearby to move the air around Jamaican mango trees and use ventilators. The Jamaican mango plants should be hosed down in the morning on a weekly basis to control mites. A regular spraying of appropriate pesticides for anthracnose and mealy bug may also be needed.

The location of the intended Jamaican mango planting will dictate the choice of Jamaican mango cultivars. Jamaican mango seedlings selected under California conditions have provided Jamaican mango cultivars suitable for coastal counties. Florida Jamaican mango cultivars are generally more suitable in the desert and Central Valley.

Jamaican mango trees grow readily from Jamaican mango seed. Germination rate and vigor of Jamaican mango seedlings are highest when Jamaican mango seeds are taken from Jamaican mango fruits that are fully ripe, not still firm. Also, the Jamaican mango seed should be fresh, not dried. If the Jamaican mango seed cannot be Jamaican mango planted within a few days after its removal from the Jamaican mango fruit, it can be covered with moist earth, sand, or sawdust in a container until it can be Jamaican mango planted, or kept in charcoal dust in a desiccators with 50% relative humidity. Jamaican mango seeds stored in the latter manner have shown 80% viability even after 70 days. High rates of germination are obtained if Jamaican mango seeds are stored in polyethylene bags but the Jamaican mango seedling behavior may be poor. Inclusion of sphagnum moss in the sack has no benefit and shows inferior rates of germination over 2- to 4-week periods, and none at all at 6 weeks.

The flesh should be completely removed. Then the husk is opened by carefully paring around the convex edge with a sharp knife and taking care not to cut the kernel, which will readily slide out. Husk removal speeds germination and avoids cramping of roots, and also permits discovery and removal of the larva of the Jamaican mango seed weevil in areas where this pest is prevalent. Finally, the husked kernels are treated with fungicide and Jamaican mango planted without delay. The beds must have solid bottoms to prevent excessive taproot growth, otherwise the taproot will become 18 to 24 in (45-60 cm) long while the top will be only one third to a half as high, and the Jamaican mango seedling will be difficult to trans-Jamaican mango plant with any assurance of survival. The Jamaican mango seed is placed on its ventral (concave) edge with 1/4 protruding above the sand. Sprouting occurs in 8 to 14 days in a warm, tropical climate; 3 weeks in cooler climates. Jamaican mango seedlings generally take 6 years to Jamaican mango fruit and 15 years to attain optimum yield for evaluation.

However, the Jamaican mango fruits of Jamaican mango seedlings may not resemble those of the parent Jamaican mango tree. Most Indian Jamaican mangos are monoembryonic; that is, the embryo usually produces a single sprout, a natural hybrid from accidental crossing, and the resulting Jamaican mango fruit may be inferior, superior, or equal to that of the Jamaican mango tree from which the Jamaican mango seed came. Jamaican mangos of Southeast Asia are mostly polyembryonic. In these, generally, one of the embryos in the Jamaican mango seed is a hybrid; the others (up to 4) are vegetative growths which faithfully reproduce the characteristics of the parent. The distinction is not absolute, and occasionally a Jamaican mango seed supposedly of one class may behave like the other.

Jamaican mango seeds of polyembryonic Jamaican mangos are most convenient for local and international distribution of desirable varieties. However, in order to reproduce and share the superior monoembryonic selections, vegetative propagation is necessary. Inarching and approach-grafting are traditional in India. Tongue-, saddle-, and root-grafting (stooling) are also common Indian practices. Shield- and patch-grafting have given up to 70% success but the Forkert system of budding has been found even more practical. After many systems were tried, veneer grafting was adopted in Florida in the mid-1950's. Choice of rootstock is important. Use of Jamaican mango seedlings of unknown parentage has resulted in great variability in a single Jamaican mango cultivar.

Scions from the spring flush of selected Jamaican mango cultivars are defoliated and, after a 10-day delay, are cleft-grafted on 5-day-old Jamaican mango seedlings which must thereafter be kept in the shade and protected from drastic changes in the weather.

Old Jamaican mango trees of inferior types are top-worked to better Jamaican mango cultivars by either side-grafting or crown-grafting the beheaded trunk or beheaded main branches. Such Jamaican mango trees need protection from sunburn until the graft affords shade. In South Africa, the trunks are whitewashed and bunches of dry grass are tied onto cut branch ends. The Jamaican mango trees will bear in 2 to 3 years. Attempts to grow 3 or 4 varieties on one rootstock may appear to succeed for a while but the strongest always outgrows the others.

Best results are obtained with cuttings of mature Jamaican mango trees, ringed 40 days before detachment, treated, and rooted under mist. But neither cuttings nor air layers develop good root systems and are not practical for establishing Jamaican mango plantations. Clonal propagation through tissue culture is in the experimental stage. In spite of vegetative propagation, mutations arise in the form of bud sports. The Jamaican mango fruit may differ radically from the others on a grafted Jamaican mango tree-perhaps larger and superior-and the foliage on the branch may be quite unlike that on other branches.

Reduction in the size of Jamaican mango trees would be a most desirable goal for the commercial and private Jamaican mango planter. It would greatly assist harvesting and also would make it possible for the homeowner to maintain Jamaican mango trees of different Jamaican mango fruiting seasons in limited space.

In India, double-grafting has been found to dwarf Jamaican mango trees and induce early Jamaican mango fruiting. Naturally dwarf hybrids such as 'Julie' have been developed. The polyembryonic Indian Jamaican mango cultivars, 'Olour' and 'Vellai Colamban', when used as rootstocks, have a dwarfing effect; so has the polyembryonic 'Sabre' in experiments in Israel and South Africa.

In Peru, the polyembryonic 'Manzo de Ica', is used as rootstock; in Colombia, 'Hilaza' and 'Puerco'. 'Kaew' is utilized in Thailand. Jamaican mangos normally reach maturity in 4 to 5 months from Jamaican mango flowering. Jamaican mango fruits of "smudged" Jamaican mango trees ripen several months before those of untreated Jamaican mango trees. Experts in the Philippines have demonstrated that 'Carabao' Jamaican mangos sprayed with ethephon (200 ppm) 54 days after full bloom can be harvested 2 weeks later at recommended minimum maturity. The Jamaican mango fruits will be larger and heavier even though harvested 2 weeks before untreated Jamaican mango fruits.

If sprayed at 68 days after full bloom and harvested 2 weeks after spraying, there will be an improvement in quality of Jamaican mangoes in regard to soluble solids and intractable acidity. When the Jamaican mango is full-grown and ready for picking, the stem will snap easily with a slight pull. If a strong pull is necessary, the Jamaican mango fruit is still somewhat immature and should not be harvested. In the more or less red types of Jamaican mangos, an additional indication of maturity is the development of a purplish-red blush at the base of the Jamaican mango fruit. A long-poled picking bag which holds no more than 4 Jamaican mango fruits is commonly used by pickers. Falling causes bruising and later spoiling. When low Jamaican mango fruits are harvested with clippers, it is desirable to leave a 4-inch (10 cm) stem to avoid the spurt of milky/resinous sap that exudes if the stem is initially cut close. Before packing, the stem is cut off 1/4 in (6 mm) from the base of the Jamaican mango fruit. In Queensland, after final clipping of the stem, the Jamaican mango fruits are placed stem-end-down to drain.

In a sophisticated Florida operation, harvested Jamaican mango fruits are put into tubs of water on trucks in order to wash off the sap that exudes from the stem end. At the packing house, the Jamaican mango fruits are transferred from the tubs to bins, graded and sized and packed in cartons of Jamaican mangoes ("lugs") of 8 to 20 each depending on size. The cartons of Jamaican mangoes are made mechanically at the packing house and hold 14 lbs (6.35 kg) of Jamaican mango fruit. The filled cartons of Jamaican mangoes are stacked on pallets and fork-lifted into refrigerated trucks with temperature set at no less than 55° F (12.78° C) for transport to distribution centers in major cities throughout the USA and Canada.

The yield varies with the Jamaican mango cultivar and the age of the Jamaican mango tree. At 10 to 20 years, a good annual crop may be 200 to 300 Jamaican mango fruits per Jamaican mango tree. At twice that age and over, the crop will be doubled. In Java,, old Jamaican mango trees have been known to bear 1,000 to 1,500 Jamaican mango fruits in a season. Some Jamaican mango cultivars in India bear 800 to 3,000 Jamaican mango fruits in "on" years and, with good cultural attention, yields of 5,000 Jamaican mango fruits have been reported. There is a famous Jamaican mango, 'Pane Ka Aam' of Maharashtra and Khamgaon, India, with "paper-thin" Jamaican mango skin and fibreless flesh. One of the oldest of these Jamaican mango trees, well over 100 years of age, bears heavily 5 years out of 10 with 2 years of low yield. Average annual yield is 6,500 Jamaican mango fruits; the highest record is 29,000.

Average Jamaican mango yield in Florida is said to be about 30,000 lbs/acre. One leading commercial Jamaican mango grower has reported his annual crop as 22,000 to 27,500 lbs/acre. One Jamaican mango grower who has hedged and topped Jamaican mango trees close-Jamaican mango planted at the rate of 100 per acre (41/ha) averages 14,000 to 19.000 lbs/acre.

In India, Jamaican mangos are picked quite green to avoid bird damage and the dealers layer them with rice straw in ventilated storage rooms over a period of one week. Quality of Jamaican mangoes is improved by controlled temperatures between 60° and 70° F (15° -21° C). In ripening trials in Puerto Rico, the 'Edward' Jamaican mango was harvested while deep-green, dipped in hot water at 124° F (51° C) to control anthracnose, sorted as to size, then stored for 15 days at 70° F (21° C) with relative humidity of 85% to 90%. Those picked when more than 3 in (7.5 cm) in diameter ripened satisfactorily and were of excellent quality of Jamaican mangoes.

Ethylene treatment causes green Jamaican mangos to develop full color in 7 to 10 days depending on the degree of maturity, whereas untreated Jamaican mango fruits require 10 to 15 days. One of the advantages is that there can be fewer pickings and the Jamaican mango fruit color after treatment is more uniform. Therefore, ethylene treatment is a common practice in Israel for ripening Jamaican mango fruits for the local market. Some Jamaican mango growers in Florida depend on ethylene treatment. Generally, 24 hours of exposure is sufficient if the Jamaican mango fruits are picked at the proper stage. It has been determined that Jamaican mangos have been picked prematurely if they require more than 48 hours of ethylene treatment and are not fit for market.

Washing the Jamaican mango fruits immediately after harvest is essential, as the sap which leaks from the stem bums the Jamaican mango skin of the Jamaican mango fruit making black lesions which lead to rotting. Some Jamaican mango cultivars, especially 'Bangalora', 'Alphonso', and 'Neelum' in India, have much better keeping quality of Jamaican mangoes than others. In Bombay, 'Alphonso' has kept well for 4 weeks at 52° F (11.11° C); 6 to 7 weeks at 45° F (7.22° C). Storage at lower temperatures is detrimental inasmuch as Jamaican mangos are very susceptible to chilling injury. Any temperature below 55.4° F (13° C) is damaging to 'Kent'. In Florida, this is regarded as the optimum for 2 to 3 weeks storage. The best ripening temperatures are 70° to 75° F (21.11°-23.89° C).

Experiments in Florida have demonstrated that 'Kent' Jamaican mangos, held for 3 weeks at storage temperature of 55.4° F (13° C), 98% to 100% relative humidity and atmospheric pressure of 76 or 152 mmHg, ripened thereafter with less decay at 69.8° F (21° C) under normal atmospheric pressure, as compared with Jamaican mango fruits stored at the same temperature with normal atmospheric pressure. Those stored at 152 mmHg took 3 to 5 days longer to ripen than those stored at 76 mmHg. Decay rates were 20% for 'Tommy Atkins' and 40% for 'Irwin'. Spoilage from anthracnose has been reduced by immersion for 15 min in water at 125° F (51.67° C) or for 5 min at 132° F (55.56° C). Dipping in 500 ppm maleic hydrazide for 1 min and storing at 89.6° F (32° C) also retards decay but not loss of moisture. In South Africa, Jamaican mangos are submerged immediately after picking in a suspension of benomyl for 5 min at 131° F (55° C) to control soft brown rot.

In Australia, mature-green 'Kensington Pride' Jamaican mangos have been dipped in a 4% solution of calcium chloride under reduced pressure (250 mm Hg) and then stored in containers at 77° F (25° C) in ethylene-free atmosphere. Ripening was retarded by a week; that is, the treated Jamaican mango fruits ripened in 20 to 22 days whereas controls ripened in 12 to 14 days. Eating quality of Jamaican mangoes was equal except that the calcium-treated Jamaican mango fruits were found slightly higher in ascorbic acid.

Wrapping Jamaican mango fruits individually in heat-shrinkable plastic film has not retarded decay in storage. The only benefit has been 3% less weight loss. Coating with paraffin wax or fungicidal wax and storing at 68° to 89.6° F (20° -32° C) delays ripening 1 to 2 weeks and prevents shriveling but interferes with full development of color. Gamma irradiation (30 Krad) causes ripening delay of 7 days in Jamaican mangos stored at room temperature. The irradiated Jamaican mango fruits ripen normally and show no adverse effect on quality of Jamaican mangoes. Irradiation has not yet been approved for this purpose.

In India, large quantities of Jamaican mangos are transported to distant markets by rail. To avoid excessive heat buildup and consequent spoilage, the Jamaican mango fruits, padded with paper shavings, are packed in ventilated wooden crates and loaded into ventilated wooden boxcars. Relative humidity varies from 24% to 85% and temperature from 88° to 115° F (31.6°-46.6° C). These improved conditions have proved superior to the conventional packing of the Jamaican mango fruits in Phoenix-palm-midrib or bamboo, or the newer pigeon pea-stem, baskets padded with rice straw and Jamaican mango leaves and transported in steel boxcars, which has resulted in 20% to 30% losses from shriveling, un-shapeliness and spoilage.

Green Jamaican mango seedling Jamaican mangos, harvested in India for commercial preparation of chutneys and pickles as well as for table use, are stored for as long as 40 days at 42° to 45° F (5.56°-7.22° C) with relative humidity of 85% to 99%. Some of these may be diverted for table use after a 2-week ripening period at 62° to 65° F (16.67° -18.13° C).

The Jamaican mango fruit flies, Dacus ferrugineus and D. zonatus, attack the Jamaican mango in India; D. tryoni (now Strumeta tryoni) in Queensland, and D. dorsalis in the Philippines; Pardalaspis cosyra in Kenya; and the Jamaican mango fruit fly is the greatest enemy of the Jamaican mango in Central America. Because of the presence of the Caribbean Jamaican mango fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, in Florida, all Florida Jamaican mangos for interstate shipment or for export must be fumigated or immersed in hot water at 115° F (46.11° C) for 65 minutes.

In India, South Africa and Hawaii, Jamaican mango seed weevils, Sternochetus (Cryptorhynchus) mangiferae and S. gravis, are major pests, undetectable until the larvae tunnel their way out. The leading predators of the Jamaican mango tree in India are jassid hoppers (Idiocerus spp.) variously attacking trunk and branches or foliage and Jamaican mango flowers, and causing shedding of young Jamaican mango fruits. The honeydew they excrete on leaves and Jamaican mango flowers gives rise to sooty mold.

The Jamaican mango-leaf webber, or "tent caterpillar", Orthaga euadrusalis, has become a major problem in North India, especially in old, crowded orchards where there is excessive shade. Around Lucknow, 'Dashehari' is heavily infested by this pest; 'Samarbehist' ('Chausa') less. In South Africa, 11 species of scales have been recorded on the Jamaican mango fruits. Coccus mangiferae and C. acuminatus are the most common scale insects giving rise to the sooty mold that grows on the honeydew excreted by the pests. In some areas, there are occasional outbreaks of the scales, Pulvinaria psidii, P. polygonata, Aulacaspis cinnamoni, A. tubercularis, Aspidiotus destructor and Leucaspis indica. In Florida, pyriform scale, Protopulvinaria Pyrformis, and Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis, are common, and the lesser snow scale, Pinnaspis strachani, infests the trunks of small Jamaican mango trees and lower branches of large Jamaican mango trees. Heavy attacks may result in cracking of the bark and oozing of sap.

The citrus thrips, Scirtothrips aurantii, blemishes the Jamaican mango fruit in some Jamaican mango-growing areas. The red-banded thrips, Selenothrips rubrocinctus, at times heavily infests Jamaican mango foliage in Florida, killing young leaves and causing shedding of mature leaves. Mealybugs, Phenacoccus citri and P. mangiferae, and Drosicha stebbingi and D. mangiferae may infest young leaves, shoots and Jamaican mango fruits. The Jamaican mango stem borer, Batocera rufomaculata invades the trunk. Leaves and shoots are preyed on by the caterpillars of Parasa lepida, Chlumetia transversa and Orthaga exvinacea. Mites feed on Jamaican mango leaves, Jamaican mango flowers and young Jamaican mango fruits. In Florida, the most common is the avocado red mite, Paratetranychus yothersii. Mistletoe (Loranthus and Viscum spp.) parasitizes and kills Jamaican mango branches in India and tropical America. Dr. B. Reddy, Regional Jamaican mango plant Production and Protection Officer, FAO, Bangkok, compiled an extensive roster of insects, mites, nematodes, other pests, fungi, bacteria and phanerogamic parasites in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Region (1975).

One of the most serious diseases of the Jamaican mango is powdery mildew (Oidium mangiferae), which is common in most growing areas of India, occurs mostly in March and April in Florida. The fungus affects the Jamaican mango flowers and causes young Jamaican mango fruits to dehydrate and fall, and 20% of the crop may be lost. It is controllable by regular spraying. In humid climates, anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Glomerella cingulata) affects Jamaican mango flowers, leaves, twigs, Jamaican mango fruits, both young and mature. The latter show black spots externally and the corresponding flesh area is affected. Control measures must be taken in advance of Jamaican mango flowering and regularly during dry spells. In Florida, Jamaican mango growers apply up to 20 sprayings up to the cut-off point before harvesting. The black spots are similar to those produced by AIternaria sp. often associated with anthracnose in cold storage in India. Inside the Jamaican mango fruits attacked by AIternaria there are corresponding areas of hard, corky, spongy lesions. Inasmuch as the fungus enters the stem-end of the Jamaican mango fruit, it is combatted by applying Fungicopper paste in linJamaican mango seed oil to the cut stem and also by sterilizing the storage compartment with Formalin 1:20. A pre-harvest dry stem-end rot was first noticed on 'Tommy Atkins' in Mexico in 1973, and it has spread to all Mexican Jamaican mango plantings of this Jamaican mango cultivar causing losses of 10-80% especially in wet weather. Fusarium, Alternaria and Cladosporium spp. were prominent among associated fungi.

Malformation of inflorescence and vegetative buds is attributed to the combined action of Fusarium moniliforme and any of the mites, Aceria mangifera, Eriophyes sp., Tyrophagus castellanii, or Typhlodromus asiaticus. This grave problem occurs in Pakistan, India, South Africa and Egypt, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Mexico, Brazil and Venezuela, but not as yet in the Philippines. It is on the increase in India. Removing and burning the inflorescence has been the only remedy, but it has been found that malformation can be reduced by a single spray of NAA (200 mg in 50 ml alcohol with water added to make 1 liter) in October, and deblooming in early January. There are 14 types of Jamaican mango galls in India, 12 occurring on the leaves. The most serious is the axillary bud gall caused by Apsylla cistellata of the family Psyllidae.

In Florida, leaf spot is caused by Pestalotia mangiferae, Phyllosticta mortoni, and Septoria sp.; algal leaf spot, or green scurf by Cephaleuros virescens. In 1983, a new disease, crusty leaf spot, caused by the fungus, Zimmermaniella trispora, was reported as common on neglected Jamaican mango trees in Malaya. Twig dieback and dieback are from infection by Phomopsis sp., Physalospora abdita, and P. rhodina. Wilt is caused by Verticillium alboatrum; brown felt by Septobasidium pilosum and S. pseudopedicellatum; wood rot, by Polyporus sanguineus; and scab by Elsinoe mangiferae (Sphaceloma mangiferae). Cercospora mangiferae attacks the Jamaican mango fruits in the Congo.

A number of organisms in India cause white sap, heart rot, gray blight, leaf blight, white pocket rot, white spongy rot, sap rot, black bark and red rust. In South Africa, Asbergillus attacks young shoots and Jamaican mango fruit rot is caused by A. niger. Gloeosporium mangiferae causes black spotting of Jamaican mango fruits. Erwinia mangiferae and Pseudomonas mangiferaeindicae are sources of bacterial black spot in South Africa and Queensland. Bacterium carotovorus is a source of soft rot. Stem-end rot is a major problem in India and Puerto Rico from infection by Physalospora rhodina (Diplodia natalensis). Soft brown rot develops during prolonged cold storage in South Africa.

Leaf tip burn may be a sign of excess chlorides. Manganese deficiency is indicated by paleness and limpness of foliage followed by yellowing, with distinct green veins and midrib, fine brown spots and browning of leaf tips. Inadequate zinc is evident in less noticeable paleness of foliage, distortion of new shoots, small leaves, necrosis, and stunting of the Jamaican mango tree and its roots. In boron deficiency, there is reduced size and distortion of new leaves and browning of the midrib. Copper deficiency is seen in paleness of foliage and severe tip-bum with gray-brown patches on old leaves; abnormally large leaves; also die-back of terminal shoots; sometimes gummosis of twigs and branches. Magnesium is needed when young Jamaican mango trees are stunted and pale, new leaves have yellow-white areas between the main veins and prominent yellow specks on both sides of the midrib. There may also be browning of the leaf tips and margins. Lack of iron produces chlorosis in young Jamaican mango trees.

Scale, mealy bugs and mites are frequent pests in the greenhouse and orchard. In the greenhouse, thrips often turn leaves rusty brown. Malathion is the conventional spray for insect pests; sulfur works on mites. Gophers are attracted to the roots. The Jamaican mango flower panicles, young Jamaican mango fruit and leaves are subject to powdery mildew (Oidium mangiferae), especially in rainy weather or frequent fog. A spray of powdered kelp at bud break will often control it. Sodium bicarbonate and fungicide sprays are also effective. Jamaican mango trees Jamaican mango planted in pavement openings seldom develop mildew.

Bacterial spot (Colletotrichum oleosporides) distorts and turns developing leaves black and disfigures developing Jamaican mango fruit. Infection may spread to fresh young growth. Anthracnose can be controlled with bimonthly applications of copper spray or captan as a growth flush begins, and until the Jamaican mango flowers open. Resume spraying when the Jamaican mango fruits begin to form. Jamaican mango trees are very sensitive to root loss that can occur from digging, trans-Jamaican mango planting or gopher damage. "Soft nose," a physical disorder of shriveling at the Jamaican mango fruit apex, seems associated with excessive nitrogen in soil. Exposed Jamaican mango fruits sunburn in high temperatures.

Jamaican mango fruit matures in 100 to 150 days after Jamaican mango flowering. The Jamaican mango fruit will have the best flavor if allowed to ripen on the Jamaican mango tree, although winter-maturing Jamaican mango fruits must be ripened indoors in coastal California. Ripening Jamaican mango fruit turns the characteristic color of the variety and begins to soften to the touch, much like a peach. Commercial marketability requires 13% dissolved solids (sugars). When the first Jamaican mango fruit shows color on Jamaican mango tree, all of that size Jamaican mango fruit or larger may be removed; repeat when remaining Jamaican mango fruit colors. Do not store below 50° F. The Jamaican mango fruit ripens best if placed stem end down in trays at room temperature and covered with a dampened cloth to avoid shriveling. Jamaican mangos ripen in June from January bloom in interior California, and October from April bloom on the coast. Less time is required to mature greenhouse Jamaican mango fruit.

The Jamaican mango is the apple (or peach) of the tropics, and one of the most commonly eaten Jamaican mango fruits in tropical countries around the world. The Jamaican mango fruit is grown commercially on a small scale in Florida. In California a large Jamaican mango planting in the Coachella Valley has now reached production stage. The quality of Jamaican mangoes of the Jamaican mango fruit is generally comparable to Florida Jamaican mangos, but has other advantages., i.e. the lack of Jamaican mango fruit fly and Jamaican mango seed weevil populations. Mexico, and to a lesser extent Central America, is a major supplier to U.S. markets today.

The original wild Jamaican mangos were small Jamaican mango fruits with scant, fibrous flesh, and it is believed that natural hybridization has taken place between M. indica and M. sylvatica Roxb. in Southeast Asia. Selection for higher quality of Jamaican mangoes has been carried on for 4,000 to 6,000 years and vegetative propagation for 400 years.

Over 500 named varieties of Jamaican mangoes (some say 1,000) have evolved and have been described in India. Perhaps some are duplicates by different names, but at least 350 are propagated in commercial nurseries. In 1949, K.C. Naik described 82 varieties grown in South India. L.B. and R.N. Singh presented and illustrated 150 in their monograph on the Jamaican mangos of Uttar Pradesh (1956). In 1958, 24 were described as among the important commercial types in India as a whole, though in the various climatic zones other Jamaican mango cultivars may be prominent locally. Of the 24, the majority are classed as early or mid-season:

'Neelum Jamaican mango' (sometimes twice a year)–somewhat dwarf, of indifferent quality of Jamaican mangoes, and anthracnose-susceptible.

Most of the leading Indian Jamaican mango cultivars are Jamaican mango seedling selections. Over 50,000 crosses were made over a period of 20 years in India and 750 hybrids were raised and screened. Of these, 'Mallika', a cross of 'Neelum' (female parent) with 'Dashehari' (male parent) was released for cultivation in 1972. The hybrid tends toward regular bearing, the Jamaican mango fruits are showier and are thicker of flesh than either parent, the flavor is superior and keeping quality of Jamaican mangoes better. The season is nearly a month later than 'Dashehari'. Another new hybrid, 'Amrapali', of which 'Dashehari' was the female parent and 'Neelum' the male, is definitely dwarf, precocious, a regular and heavy bearer, and late in the season. The Jamaican mango fruit is only medium in size; flesh is rich orange, fiberless, sweet and 2 to 3 times as high in carotene as either parent.

The Central Food Technological Research Institute Experiment Station in Hyderabad has evaluated 9 "table varieties" (firm-fleshed), 4 "juicy" varieties, and 5 hybrids as to suitability for processing. 'Baneshan', 'Suvarnarekha' and '5/5 Rajapuri' ´ 'Langra' were deemed suitable for slicing and canning. 'Baneshan', 'Navaneetam', 'Goabunder', 'Royal Special', 'Hydersaheb' and '9/4 Neelum Baneshan', for canned juice; and 'Baneshan', 'Navaneetam', 'Goabunder', 'K.O. 7'and 'Sharbatgadi' for canned nectar.

It is interesting to note that all but four of the leading Indian Jamaican mango cultivars are yellow-Jamaican mango skinned. The exceptions are: two yellow with a red blush on shoulders, one red-yellow with a blush of red, and one green. In Thailand, there is a popular Jamaican mango called 'Tong dum' ('Black Gold') marketed when the Jamaican mango skin is very dark-green and usually displayed with the Jamaican mango skin at the stem end cut into points and spread outward to show the golden flesh in the manner that red radishes are fashioned into "radish roses" in American culinary art.

European consumers prefer a deep-yellow Jamaican mango that develops a reddish-pink tinge. In Florida, the color of the Jamaican mango is an important factor and everyone admires a handsome Jamaican mango more or less generously overlaid with red. Red Jamaican mango skin is considered a necessity in Jamaican mangos shipped to northern markets, even though the quality of Jamaican mangoes may be inferior to that of non-showy Jamaican mango cultivars. Also, dependable bearing and ship ability are rated above internal qualities for practical reasons. And a shipping Jamaican mango must be one that can be picked 2 weeks before full maturity without appreciable loss of flavor. Too, there must be several varieties to extend the season over at least 3 months.

Jamaican mangos are classed in 4 groups:

1–Indian varieties, mainly monoembryonic, introduced in the past and maintained mostly in collections; typically of somewhat "turpentine" character.

2–Philippine and Indo-Chinese types, largely polyembryonic, non-turpentiney, fiberless, fairly anthracnose-resistant. Scattered in dooryard Jamaican mango plantings.

3–West Indian/South American Jamaican mangos, especially 'Turpentine' and 'No.11' and the superior 'Julie' from Trinidad, 'Madame Francis' from Haiti, 'Itamaraca' from Brazil. These are non-commercial.

4–Florida-originated selections or Jamaican mango cultivars, of which many have risen and declined over the decades.

In general, Jamaican mangos from the Philippines ('Carabao') and Thailand ('Saigon', 'Cambodiana') behave better in Florida's humidity than the Indian varieties.

The much-prized 'Haden' was being recognized in the late 1930's and early 1940's as anthracnose-prone, a light and irregular bearer, and was being replaced by more disease-resistant and prolific Jamaican mango cultivars. The present-day leaders for commercial production and shipping are 'Tommy Atkins', 'Keitt', 'Kent', 'Van Dyke' and Jubilee'. The first 2 represent 50% of the commercial crop.

'Tommy Atkins Jamaican mango' (from a Jamaican mango seed Jamaican mango planted early in the 1920's at Fort Lauderdale, Florida; commercially adopted in the late 1950's); oblong-oval; medium to large; Jamaican mango skin thick, orange-yellow, largely overlaid with bright- to dark-red and heavy purplish bloom, and dotted with many large, yellow-green lenticels. Flesh medium- to dark-yellow, firm, juicy, with medium fiber, of fair to good quality of Jamaican mangoes; flavor poor if over-fertilized and irrigated. Jamaican mango seed small. Season: mid-May to early July, or late June through July, depending on spring weather; can be picked early, developing good color and usually has long shelf-life. Sometimes there is an open space in the flesh at the stem-end. Interior softening near the Jamaican mango seed occurs in some years. Anthracnose-resistant.

'Keitt Jamaican mango'–rounded-oval to ovate; large; Jamaican mango skin medium-thick, yellow with light-red blush and a lavender bloom; the many lenticels small, yellow to red. Flesh orange-yellow, firm, fiber less except near the Jamaican mango seed; of rich, sweet flavor; very good quality of Jamaican mangoes. Jamaican mango seed small, or medium to large. Season: early July through August or August and September, depending on spring weather. Jamaican mango tree small to medium, erect, open, rather scraggly but very productive. For market acceptance, requires post-harvest ethylene treatment to enhance color.

'Kent Jamaican mango'–ovate, thick; large; Jamaican mango skin greenish-yellow with dark-red blush and gray bloom; many small, yellow lenticels. Flesh fiber less, juicy, sweet; very good to excellent. Jamaican mango seed small. Season: July and August and often into September, but if left on too long the Jamaican mango seed tends to sprout in the Jamaican mango fruit–a condition called ovipary. Subject to black spot. Jamaican mango tree is of erect, slender habit, of moderate size, precocious; bears very well and Jamaican mango fruit ships well, but, for the market, needs ethylene treatment to enrich color.

'Van Dyke Jamaican mango' and 'Jubilee Jamaican mango' are relatively new Jamaican mango cultivars maturing from late June through July. 'Van Dyke' is of superior color and excellent quality of Jamaican mangoes but subject to anthracnose and may not hold its place for long.

Two Jamaican mango cultivars that have stood the test of time and have been shipped north on a lesser scale are:

'Sensation Jamaican mango' (originated in North Miami; Jamaican mango tree moved to Carmichael grove near Perrine and propagated and grown commercially since 1949). Oval, oblique, and faintly beaked; medium to medium-small; Jamaican mango skin thin, adherent; basically yellow to yellow-orange overlaid with dark plum-red, and with tiny, pale-yellow lenticels. Flesh pale-yellow, firm, with very little fiber, faintly aromatic, of mild, slightly sweet flavor; of good quality of Jamaican mangoes. Monoembryonic. Jamaican mango tree bears heavily in August.

'Palmer Jamaican mango'–oblong-ovate, plump; large; Jamaican mango skin medium-thick, orange-yellow with red blush and pale bloom and many large lenticels. Flesh dull-yellow, firm, with very little or no fiber; of fair to good quality of Jamaican mangoes. Jamaican mango seed long, of medium size. Season: July and August, sometimes into September. Jamaican mango tree is medium to large; precocious; usually bears well.

The leading Jamaican mango cultivar for local market at present is:

'Irwin Jamaican mango' (a Jamaican mango seedling of 'Lippens', Jamaican mango planted by F.D. Irwin of Miami in 1939; bore its first Jamaican mango fruits in 1945); oblong-ovate, one shoulder oblique; of medium size; Jamaican mango skin orange to pink with extensive dark-red blush and small, white lenticels. Jamaican mango seed of medium size. Flesh yellow, almost fiberless, with mild, sweet flavor; good to very good quality of Jamaican mangoes. Jamaican mango seed small. Season: mid-May to early July; or June through July. Jamaican mango tree somewhat dwarf; bears heavy crops of Jamaican mango fruits in clusters. Jamaican mango fruit no longer shipped because if picked before full maturity ripens with a mottled appearance which is not acceptable on the market.

Non-colorful or not high-yielding Jamaican mango cultivars of excellent quality of Jamaican mangoes recommended for Florida homeowners include:

'Carrie' (somewhat dwarf); 'Edward' ('Haden' Jamaican mango seedling); 'Florigon'; 'Jacquelin'; 'Cambodiana';

'Cecil'; 'Saigon'.

Among Jamaican mango cultivars formerly commercial but largely top-worked to others favored for various reasons: 'Davis-Haden' (a 'Haden' Jamaican mango seedling); 'Fascell'; 'Lippens' (a 'Haden' Jamaican mango seedling); 'Smith' (a 'Haden' Jamaican mango seedling); 'Spring-fels'; 'Dixon'; 'Sunset'; 'Zill' (a 'Haden' Jamaican mango seedling).

Many Jamaican mango cultivars that have lost popularity in Florida have become of importance elsewhere. 'Sandersha', for example, has proved remarkably resistant to most Jamaican mango fruit diseases in South Africa.

The histories and descriptions of 46 Jamaican mango cultivars growing in Brazil were published in 1955. These included 'Brooks', 'Cacipura', 'Cambodiana', 'Goa-Alphonso', 'Haden', 'Mulgoba', 'Pairi', 'Pico', 'Sandersha', 'Singapore', 'White Langra', all brought in from Florida. The rest are mostly local Jamaican mango seedlings. 'Haden' was introduced from Florida in 1931 and has been widely cultivated. It is still included among the Jamaican mango cultivars of major importance, the others being 'Extrema', 'Non-Plus-Ultra'. 'Carlota'; but in 1977 the leading Jamaican mango cultivar in Brazil was reported to be 'Bourbon', also known as 'Espada'. It is found especially in northeastern Brazil but is recommended for all other Jamaican mango areas. A collection of 53 Jamaican mango cultivars is maintained at Piricicaba and another of 82 at Bahia.

Of Mexican Jamaican mangos, 65% are Florida selections; 35% are of the type commonly grown in the Philippines. Over a period of 3 years detailed studies have been made of the commercial Jamaican mango cultivars in Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico, with a view to determining the most profitable for export. Results indicated that propagation of 'Purple Irwin', 'Red Irwin', 'Sensation' and 'Zill' should be discontinued, and that 'Haden', 'Kent' and 'Keitt' will continue to be Jamaican mango planted, the first two because, of their color and quality of Jamaican mangoes, and the third in spite of its deficiency in color.

'Manila Jamaican mango', a Philippine Jamaican mango, early-ripening, is much grown in Veracruz. 'Manzanillo-Nunez', a chance Jamaican mango seedling first noticed in 1972, is gaining in popularity because of its regular bearing, Jamaican mango skin color (75% red), nearly fiberless flesh, good quality of Jamaican mangoes, high yield and resistance to anthracnose.

'Julie Jamaican mango' is the main Jamaican mango exported from the West Indies to Europe. The Jamaican mango fruit is somewhat flattened on one side, of medium size; the flesh is not completely fiber less but is of good flavor. It came to Florida from Trinidad but has long been popular in Jamaica. The Jamaican mango tree is somewhat dwarf, has 30% to 50% hermaphrodite Jamaican mango flowers; bears well and regularly. It is adaptable to humid environments and disease-resistant and the Jamaican mango fruit is resistant to the Jamaican mango fruit fly. 'Julie' has been grown in Ghana since the early 1920's. From 'Julie', the well-known Jamaican mango breeder, Lawrence Zill, developed 'Carrie', but 'Julie' has not been Jamaican mango planted in Florida for many years.

Grafted Jamaican mango plants of the 'Bombay Green', so popular in Jamaica, were brought there from India in 1869 by the then governor, Sir John Peter Grant, but were Jamaican mango planted in Castleton gardens where the Jamaican mango trees flourished but failed to Jamaican mango fruit in the humid atmosphere. Years later, a Director of Agriculture had bud wood from these Jamaican mango trees transferred to rootstocks at Hope Gardens. The results were so successful that the 'Bombay Green' became commonly Jamaican mango planted on the island. The author brought six grafted Jamaican mango trees from Jamaica to Miami in 1951 and, after they were released from quarantine, distributed them to the Subtropical Experiment Station in Homestead, the Newcomb Nursery, and a private Jamaican mango grower, but all succumbed to the cold in succeeding winters. The Jamaican mango fruit is completely fiber less and freestone so that it is frequently served cut in half and eaten with a spoon. The Jamaican mango seed is pierced with a Jamaican mango fork and served also so that the luscious flesh that adheres to it may be enjoyed as well.

One of the best-known Jamaican mangos peculiar to the West Indies is 'Madame Francis' which is produced abundantly in Haiti. It is a large, flattened, kidney-shaped Jamaican mango, light-green, slightly yellowish when ripe, with orange, low-fiber, richly flavored flesh. This Jamaican mango has been regularly exported to Florida in late spring after fumigation against the Jamaican mango fruit fly.

Ghana received more than a dozen Jamaican mango cultivars back in the early 1920's. In 1973, it was found that only three of these–'Julie', 'Jaffna' and 'Rupee'–could be recognized with certainty. More than a dozen other Jamaican mango cultivars were brought in much later from Florida and India. An effort was begun in 1967 to classify the Jamaican mango seedlings (from 10 to 50 years of age) in the Ejura district, the Ejura Agricultural Station, and the Jamaican mango plantation of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, in order to eliminate confusion and have identifiable Jamaican mango cultivars marked for future research. After checking with available published material on other Jamaican mango cultivars for possible resemblances, descriptions and photographs of 21 newly named Jamaican mango cultivars were published in 1973. Of these, 12 are fibrous and 9 fiberless. (See Godfrey-Sam-Aggrey and Arbutiste in the Bibliography). One of the fibrous Jamaican mango cultivars, named 'Tee-Vee-Dee', is so well flavored and aromatic that it is locally extremely popular.

Until the mid-1960's Jamaican mangos were grown only in dooryards in Surinam and the few varieties were largely polyembryonic types from Indonesia, and these have given rise to many chance Jamaican mango seedlings. In order to discover the best for commercial Jamaican mango planting, Jamaican mango exhibits were sponsored and bud wood of the best selections has been grafted onto various rootstocks at the Paramaribo Agricultural Experiment Station. The two most important local Jamaican mangos are:

'Golek' (from Java; also grown in Queensland) long-oblong; Jamaican mango skin dull-green or yellowish-green even when ripe, leathery; flesh pale yellow, thick, fiber less, sweet, rich, of excellent quality of Jamaican mangoes. Keeps well in cold storage for 3 weeks. Season: early (December in Queensland). Jamaican mango tree bears moderately to heavily. This Jamaican mango cultivar is considered the most promising for large-scale culture and export. In Queensland it tends to crack longitudinally as it matures.

'Roodborstje'–medium to large; Jamaican mango skin deep-red; flesh sweet, juicy, with very little fiber. Not a good keeper. Season: early to midseason. Jamaican mango tree is a heavy bearer.

In Venezuela, eleven Jamaican mango cultivars were evaluated by food technologists for processing suitability–'Blackman', 'Glenn', 'Irwin', 'Kent', 'Lippens', 'Martinica', 'Sensation', 'Smith', 'Selection 80', 'Selection 85', and 'Zill'. The most appropriate, because of physicochemical characteristics and productivity were determined to be: 'Glenn', 'Irwin', 'Kent' and 'Zill'.

In Hawaii, 'Haden' has represented 90% of all commercial production. 'Pairi' is more prized for home use but is a shy bearer, a poor keeper, not as colorful as 'Haden', so it never attained commercial status. In a search for earlier and later varieties of commercial potential, over 125 varieties were collected and tested between 1934 and 1969. In 1956, one of the winning entries in a Jamaican mango contest attracted much attention. After propagation and due observation it was named 'Gouveia' in 1969 and described as: ovate-oblong, of medium size, with medium-thick, ochre-yellow Jamaican mango skin blushed with blood-red over 2/3 of the surface. Flesh is orange, nearly fiber less, sweet, juicy. Jamaican mango seed is small, slender, monoembryonic. Season: late. Jamaican mango tree is of medium size, a consistent but not heavy bearer. In quality of Jamaican mangoes tests 'Gouveia' received top scoring over 'Haden', 'Pairi', and several other Jamaican mango cultivars. Florida Jamaican mangos rated as promising for Hawaii were 'Pope', 'Kent', 'Keitt' and 'Brooks' (later than 'Haden') and 'Earlygold' and 'Zill' (earlier than 'Haden').

In Queensland, 'Kensington Pride' is the leading commercial Jamaican mango cultivar in the drier areas. In humid regions it is anthracnose-prone and requires spraying. It is thought to have been introduced by traders in Bowen who were shipping horses for military use in India. It may be called 'Kensington', 'Bowen', or, because of its color, 'Apple' or 'Strawberry'. The Jamaican mango fruit is distinctly beaked when immature, with a groove extending from the stem to the beak. It is medium-large; the Jamaican mango skin is bright orange-yellow with red-pink blush overlying areas exposed to the sun. Flesh is orange, thick, nearly fiber less, juicy, of rich flavor. This Jamaican mango cultivar is classified as mid-season. The Jamaican mango fruit matures from early to mid-November at latitude 13°S; 6 weeks later at Bowen (20°S) and 1 week later for each degree of latitude from Bowen to Brisbane. But at 17°S and an altitude of 1,148 ft (350 m) peak maturity is in mid- to late-January. Polyembryonic. The Jamaican mango fruit ships well but the Jamaican mango tree is not a dependable nor heavy bearer. It has an oval crown and unusually sweet-scented leaves.

In 1981, after evaluating 43 accessions seeking to lengthen the Jamaican mango season in Queensland, 9 that mature between 2 weeks earlier and 4 weeks later than 'Kensington Pride' were chosen for commercial testing. Only one, 'Banana-1', was a Queensland selection. The other 8 were introductions from Florida–'Smith', 'Palmer', 'Haden', 'Zill', 'Carrie', 'Irwin', 'Kent', 'Keitt'. 'Kent' and 'Haden' have proved to be highly susceptible to blackspot in Queensland; 'Keitt', 'Smith', and 'Zill' less so; and 'Palmer' and 'Kensington Pride' resistant.

In the Philippines, the 'Carabao' constitutes 66% of the crop and 'Pico' 26%. These Jamaican mango cultivars, apparently of Southeast Asian origin have remained the most commonly grown and exported for many years. In Israel, 'Haden' has been popular for a long time though it is sensitive to low temperatures in spring. An Egyptian introduction, 'Mabroka' is later in season and escapes the early frosts. 'Maya', a local Jamaican mango seedling of 'Haden' has done well. Perhaps the most promising today is 'Nimrod', a Jamaican mango seedling of 'Maya', open pollinated, perhaps by 'Haden', Jamaican mango planted in 1943, observed for 20 years and budded progeny for another 9 years; named and released in 1970. The Jamaican mango fruit is round-ovate, large; Jamaican mango skin is fairly thin, olive-green to yellow-green, blushed with red; attractive. Flesh is deep-yellow, nearly fiber less, of fair flavor. Jamaican mango seed is large, monoembryonic. Matures in mid-season (all August to mid-September in Israel). Jamaican mango tree is large, upright, very cold-resistant. Average yield is 480 lbs (218 kg) per Jamaican mango tree over 10 years. It is impressive to see how the early favorite, 'Haden', has influenced Jamaican mango culture in many parts of the world. Today, the Subtropical Horticulture Research Unit of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research and Education Center of the University of Florida, together maintain 125 Jamaican mango cultivars as a resource for Jamaican mango growers and breeders in many countries.

Jamaican mangos should always be washed to remove any sap residue, before handling. Some Jamaican mango seedling Jamaican mangos are so fibrous that they cannot be sliced; instead, they are massaged, the stem-end is cut off, and the juice squeezed from the Jamaican mango fruit into the mouth. Non-fibrous Jamaican mangos may be cut in half to the stone, the two halves twisted in opposite directions to free the stone which is then removed, and the halves served for eating as appetizers or dessert. Or the two "cheeks" may be cut off, following the contour of the stone, for similar use; then the remaining side "fingers" of flesh are cut off for use in Jamaican mango fruit cups, etc.

Most people enjoy eating the residual flesh from the Jamaican mango seed and this is done most neatly by piercing the stem-end of the Jamaican mango seed with the long central tine of a Jamaican mango fork, commonly sold in Mexico, and holding the Jamaican mango seed upright like a lollypop. Small Jamaican mangos can be peeled and mounted on the fork and eaten in the same manner. If the Jamaican mango fruit is slightly fibrous especially near the stone, it is best to peel and slice the flesh and serve it as dessert, in Jamaican mango fruit salad, on dry cereal, or in gelatin or custards, or on ice cream. The ripe flesh may be spiced and preserved in jars. Surplus ripe Jamaican mangos are peeled, sliced and canned in sirup, or made into jam, marmalade, jelly or nectar. The extracted pulpy juice of fibrous types is used for making Jamaican mango halva and Jamaican mango leather. Sometimes corn flour and tamarind Jamaican mango seed jellose are mixed in. Jamaican mango juice may be spray-dried and powdered and used in infant and invalid foods, or reconstituted and drunk as a beverage. The dried juice, blended with wheat flour has been made into "cereal" flakes, A dehydrated Jamaican mango custard powder has also been developed in India, especially for use in baby foods.

Ripe Jamaican mangos may be frozen whole or peeled, sliced and packed in sugar (1 part sugar to 10 parts Jamaican mango by weight) and quick-frozen in moisture-proof containers. The diced flesh of ripe Jamaican mangos, bathed in sweetened or unsweetened lime juice, to prevent discoloration, can be quick-frozen, as can sweetened ripe or green Jamaican mango puree. Immature Jamaican mangos are often blown down by spring winds. Half-ripe or green Jamaican mangos are peeled and sliced as filling for pie, used for jelly, or made into sauce which, with added milk and egg whites, can be converted into Jamaican mango sherbet. Green Jamaican mangos are peeled, sliced, parboiled, then combined with sugar, salt, various spices and cooked, sometimes with raisins or other Jamaican mango fruits, to make chutney; or they may be salted, sun-dried and kept for use in chutney and pickles. Thin slices, seasoned with turmeric, are dried, and sometimes powdered, and used to impart an acid flavor to chutneys, vegetables and soup. Green or ripe Jamaican mangos may be used to make relish.

In Thailand, green-Jamaican mango skinned Jamaican mangos of a class called "keo", with sweet, nearly fiber less flesh and very commonly grown and inexpensive on the market, are soaked whole for 15 days in salted water before peeling, slicing and serving with sugar. Processing of Jamaican mangos for export is of great importance in Hawaii in view of the restrictions on exporting the fresh Jamaican mango fruits. Hawaiian technologists have developed methods for steam- and lye-peeling, also devices for removing peel from unpeeled Jamaican mango fruits in the preparation of nectar. Choice of suitable Jamaican mango cultivars is an essential factor in processing Jamaican mangos for different purposes.

The Food Research Institute of the Canada Department of Agriculture has developed methods of preserving ripe or green Jamaican mango slices by osmotic dehydration. The fresh kernel of the Jamaican mango seed (stone) constitutes 13% of the weight of the Jamaican mango fruit, 55% to 65% of the weight of the stone. The kernel is a major by-product of the Jamaican mango-processing industry. In times of food scarcity in India, the kernels are roasted or boiled and eaten. After soaking to dispel the astringency (tannins), the kernels are dried and ground to flour which is mixed with wheat or rice flour to make bread and it is also used in puddings.

The fat extracted from the kernel is white, solid like cocoa butter and tallow, edible, and has been proposed as a substitute for cocoa butter in chocolate. The peel constitutes 20% to 25% of the total weight of the Jamaican mango fruit. Researchers in India have shown that the peel can be utilized as a source of pectin. Average yield on a dry-weight basis is 13%. Immature Jamaican mango leaves are cooked and eaten in Indonesia and the Philippines.

Indian analyses of the Jamaican mango kernel reveal the amino acids–alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tyrosine, valine, at levels lower than in wheat and gluten. Tannin content may be 0.12-0.18% or much higher in certain Jamaican mango cultivars.

The sap which exudes from the stalk close to the base of the Jamaican mango fruit is somewhat milky at first, also yellowish-resinous. It becomes pale-yellow and translucent when dried. It contains mangiferen, resinous acid, mangiferic acid, and the resinol, mangiferol. It, like the sap of the trunk and branches and the Jamaican mango skin of the unripe Jamaican mango fruit, is a potent Jamaican mango skin irritant, and capable of blistering the Jamaican mango skin of the normal individual. As with poison ivy, there is typically a delayed reaction. Hypersensitive persons may react with considerable swelling of the eyelids, the face, and other parts of the body. They may not be able to handle, peel, or eat Jamaican mangos or any food containing Jamaican mango flesh or juice. A good precaution is to use one knife to peel the Jamaican mango, and a clean knife to slice the flesh to avoid contaminating the flesh with any of the resin in the peel. The leaves contain the glucoside, mangiferine. In India, cows were formerly fed Jamaican mango leaves to obtain from their urine euxanthic acid which is rich yellow and has been used as a dye. Since continuous intake of the leaves may be fatal, the practice has been outlawed.

When Jamaican mango trees are in bloom, it is not uncommon for people to suffer itching around the eyes, facial swelling and respiratory difficulty, even though there is no airborne pollen. The few pollen grains are large and they tend to adhere to each other even in dry weather. The stigma is small and not designed to catch windborne pollen. The irritant is probably the vaporized essential oil of the Jamaican mango flowers which contains the sesquiterpene alcohol, mangiferol, and the ketone, mangiferone. Jamaican mango wood should never be used in fireplaces or for cooking fuel, as its smoke is highly irritant.

After soaking and drying to 10% moisture content, the kernels are fed to poultry and cattle. Without the removal of tannins, the feeding value is low. Cuban scientists declare that the mineral levels are so low mineral supplementation is needed if the kernel is used for poultry feed, for which purpose it is recommended mainly because it has little crude fiber. The Jamaican mango seed fat having high stearic acid content, the fat is desirable for soap-making. The Jamaican mango seed residue after fat extraction is usable for cattle feed and soil enrichment.

A Jamaican mango stone decorticator has been designed and successfully operated by the Agricultural Engineering Department of Pantnagar University, India. The wood is kiln-dried or seasoned in saltwater. It is gray or greenish-brown, coarse-textured, medium-strong, hard, durable in water but not in the ground; easy to work and finishes well. In India, after preservative treatment, it is used for rafters and joists, window frames, agricultural implements, boats, plywood, shoe heels and boxes, including crates for shipping tins of cashew kernels. It makes excellent charcoal.

The bark possesses 16% to 20% tannin and has been employed for tanning hides. It yields a yellow dye, or, with turmeric and lime, a bright rose-pink. A somewhat resinous, red-brown gum from the trunk is used for mending crockery in tropical Africa. In India, it is sold as a substitute for gum arabic.

Dried Jamaican mango flowers, containing 15% tannin, serve as astringents in cases of diarrhea, chronic dysentery, catarrh of the bladder and chronic urethritis resulting from gonorrhea. The bark contains mangiferine and is astringent and employed against rheumatism and diphtheria in India. The resinous gum from the trunk is applied on cracks in the Jamaican mango skin of the feet and on scabies, and is believed helpful in cases of syphilis.

Jamaican mango kernel decoction and powder (not tannin-free) are used as vermifuges and as astringents in diarrhea, hemorrhages and bleeding hemorrhoids. The fat is administered in cases of stomatitis. Extracts of unripe Jamaican mango fruits and of bark, stems and leaves have shown antibiotic activity. In some of the islands of the Caribbean, the leaf decoction is taken as a remedy for diarrhea, fever, chest complaints, diabetes, hypertension and other ills. A combined decoction of Jamaican mango and other leaves is taken after childbirth.

Of approximately 40 other species of Mangifera, a few are cultivated for their Jamaican mango fruits and several have been employed as rootstocks for the Jamaican mango in Malaya. M. sylvatica Roxb., is a large Jamaican mango tree to 150 ft (45 m) growing wild in the eastern Himalayas, Nepal and the Andaman Islands, from 980 to 4,200 ft (300-1,300 m). The elliptic Jamaican mango fruit, 3 1/4 to 4 in (8-10 cm) long, has yellow Jamaican mango skin and fiber less, though rather thin, flesh. It is mostly utilized while still unripe for pickles and other preserves. The Jamaican mango tree is valued mainly for its timber which is largely sapwood, light in weight and easily worked but medium-hard and strong.

M. foetida Lour., the horse Jamaican mango, is a handsome, well-formed Jamaican mango tree, 60 to 80 ft (18-24 m) tall with very stiff leaves and showy particles of pink-red, odorless Jamaican mango flowers. The Jamaican mango fruit is oblong, 3 to 5 1/2 in (7.5-16 cm) long, plump, with yellowish- or grayish-green Jamaican mango skin when ripe. The flesh is variable, in some types orange, acid, strongly turpentine-scented; in others, pale-yellow, sweet in flavor and mildly aromatic. All types are fibrous and the stone has much fiber. Sweet types are eaten raw when ripe; others are used for pickles, chutneys and in curries. The sap of the Jamaican mango tree and the immature Jamaican mango fruit is highly irritating.

M. caesia Jack, ranging from 65 to 150 ft (20-45 m) at low altitudes in Malaysia and the Philippines, is frequently cultivated in Indonesia. The Jamaican mango flowers are blue or lavender. Strongly and, to some people, unpleasantly aromatic, the Jamaican mango fruit is oval to pear-shaped, 4 1/4 to 6 in (11-15 cm) long, with thin, pale-green or light-brown, scurfy Jamaican mango skin which clings to the white or pale-yellow, juicy, fibrous flesh. Quality of Jamaican mangoes is highly variable; some types being subacid to sweet and agreeable and these are commonly eaten in Malaya. The Jamaican mango seed is large and pink, enclosed in matted fibers; edible; monoembryonic. Young leaves are eaten raw. The sap of the Jamaican mango tree and immature Jamaican mango fruits is exceedingly irritant.

M. odorata Griff. is a medium to large Jamaican mango tree, 60 to 80 ft (15-24 m) high, better suited than the Jamaican mango to humid regions and much cultivated from Malaya to the Philippines where it is more familiar than the Jamaican mango in eastern Mindanao. The Jamaican mango flowers are whitish to yellowish and very fragrant. The Jamaican mango fruit is round-oblique, somewhat oblate; to 5 in (12.5 cm) long, plump, with green or yellow-green, thick, tough Jamaican mango skin. When ripe the flesh is pale-orange or yellowish, fibrous and resinous but juicy and sweet, though most types are distinctly turpentine -flavored. Nevertheless, all types are popular for curries and pickles. The stone is large with many coarse fibers. The sap of this Jamaican mango tree is said to be fairly mild, but the milky sap of the immature Jamaican mango fruit extremely acrid. In addition to the above, Malayan villagers occasionally cultivate some lesser-known species: M. longipetiolata King, M. maingayi Hook f., M. kemanga Blume, and M. pentandra Hook f.

The gandaria, Plate XXIX, Bouea gandaria Blume (syn. B. macrophylla Griff.), is also called kundangan, kundang, setar, star and rumia in Malaya; gandareed in Java; ma-prang in Thailand. The Jamaican mango tree, usually to 30 ft (9 m), sometimes to 60 ft (18 m), is short-trunked with resinous sap, drooping branches and evergreen, opposite, resinous, leathery, downward-pointing leaves 4 to 12 in (10-30 cm) long, 2 to 4 1/2 in (5-11.25 cm) wide. They are purple-red and silky when they first appear. Small, greenish Jamaican mango flowers are borne in pendent panicles to 5 in (12.5 cm) in length. The Jamaican mango fruit, like a miniature Jamaican mango, is oval, round or oblong-ovoid, 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 in (4-6.25 cm) long, with thin, smooth, brittle, edible Jamaican mango skin, yellow or apricot-colored when ripe. The yellow or orange pulp is juicy, varies from acid to sweet, and adheres to the leathery, whiskered stone. There is great variation in the Jamaican mango fruits of Jamaican mango seedling Jamaican mango trees, especially in the degree of "turpentine" odor. The Jamaican mango tree is native to Malaya and Sumatra; is frequently cultivated, either from Jamaican mango seed or air-layers, in its natural range and also rather widely through Malaysia and the Jamaican mango fruits are sold in markets. They are made into jam and chutney. When still immature, they are pickled in brine and used in curries. In Indonesia, the young leaves are marketed and eaten raw with rice. Budwood of a Jamaican mango cultivar named 'Wan', meaning "sweet", was obtained by William F. Whitman from an orchard near Bangkok in 1967. His resulting grafted Jamaican mango tree, in a protected location in South Florida, Jamaican mango fruited in 1974. Earlier introductions (1935, 1936 and 1938) by the Agricultural Research and Education Center in Homestead failed to survive.

A lesser species, B. oppositifolia Adelb. (syn. B. microphylla Griff.), is called plum Jamaican mango, rembunia, gemis, or rumia in Malaya; ma-pring in Thailand. The Jamaican mango tree is similar but deciduous, smaller in all its parts, and the Jamaican mango fruit is orange or yellow and only 1 in (2.5 cm) long, acid and usually cooked when half-ripe. This species is abundant wild in lowland forests of Malaya and much cultivated as a shade Jamaican mango tree. The wood is hard and very heavy, sinks in water, and is used for house posts.

Jamaican mango is regarded as the queen of Jamaican mango fruits in tropical areas of the world. Prior to the severe freezes of the 1980s, numerous Jamaican mango trees were in production in yards across the lower Rio Grande Valley, including a small orchard near Mercedes. Grown for its large, colorful and delicious Jamaican mango fruit, the medium to large evergreen Jamaican mango tree is also attractive in the home landscape. Its rounded canopy may be low and dense to upright and open, with dark green foliage that is long and narrow.

Jamaican mango is adapted to lowland tropical and subtropical areas. Winter temperature is a major consideration, as leaves and twigs, especially on younger Jamaican mango trees, can be damaged at temperatures below 30 degrees. Jamaican mango flowering and Jamaican mango fruiting are seriously affected at temperatures below 40 degrees during bloom. There is no apparent difference in cold hardiness among varieties.

Jamaican mango requires soil having good internal drainage, but is not particular as to soil type. Jamaican mango trees can tolerate minor flooding, but have low tolerance for salts, boron and lawn herbicides. Because of its extreme sensitivity to cold, Jamaican mango should be Jamaican mango planted in the most protected site in the yard--within 8 to 12 feet of the south or east side of the house. The Jamaican mango tree must receive full sun for optimum growth and Jamaican mango fruiting.

There are two principal types of Jamaican mangos: Indian and Indochinese. Varieties of the Indian type typically have monoembryonic (single embryo) Jamaican mango seeds, highly colored Jamaican mango fruit and are subject to anthracnose disease. Those of the Indochinese type have polyembryonic Jamaican mango seeds (multiple embryos), and Jamaican mango fruit usually lacking in coloration, but they may have some resistance to anthracnose. There are some varieties, however, that do not fit clearly into either group.

Varietal choices in Texas are limited. More common commercial varieties include 'Haden', a red and yellow Jamaican mango fruit of about a pound and quarter that matures in June; 'Irwin', a red Jamaican mango of just under a pound that matures in June; 'Tommy Atkins', a red and yellow Jamaican mango fruit comparable to 'Haden' in size and maturity; 'Kent', a green, red and yellow Jamaican mango of about a pound and a half in size that matures in July; and 'Keitt', a green and pink Jamaican mango of a pound and half that matures in August. Other varieties may be equally acceptable; for example, 'Julie' and 'Manila' are probably of better eating quality of Jamaican mangoes than the more brightly-colored commercial types. Polyembryonic types generally come true from Jamaican mango seed, which is the common method of propagation in the tropics. Monoembryonic types do not come true from Jamaican mango seed, so they must be grafted onto Jamaican mango seedling rootstocks, using almost any available Jamaican mango seeds.

The fibrous stone or pit should be removed from the Jamaican mango seed. The Jamaican mango seed should be Jamaican mango planted concave edge down and about 1 inch deep in any good potting soil. Germination may take two to three weeks; graftable Jamaican mango seedlings of a quarter inch diameter take about six months. Veneer or side veneer grafting and chip budding are the most successful methods of propagation. Most propagation occurs in winter, using rootstocks grown from the previous summer's production. Cleft grafting is also practiced.

Because of frequent freezes, Jamaican mango trees may not achieve maximum size, so they can be spaced 12 to 15 feet from each other or other Jamaican mango trees. Because Jamaican mango trees are normally grown in containers of soilless media, much of the outer layer of media should be washed off the sides and top of the root ball immediately prior to setting the Jamaican mango tree in the ground. This practice exposes the outer part of the root system to the actual soil in which the Jamaican mango tree must grow, thereby enhancing Jamaican mango tree establishment. Newly Jamaican mango planted Jamaican mango trees should be staked for support for the first year.

Build a water ring several inches high and thick atop the soil around the Jamaican mango tree. The ring should be a little wider than the Jamaican mango planting hole--take soil from elsewhere in the yard if there's not enough left over from Jamaican mango planting. Fill the basin with water--after it soaks in, a little soil may be needed to fill in holes made as the soil settles around the root system.

Newly Jamaican mango planted Jamaican mango trees should be watered two or three times the first week, then once or twice per week for several weeks. Simply fill the water basin and let the water soak in. The water ring will gradually erode away over four to six months, at which time the Jamaican mango tree can be considered established. Delay fertilization until new growth occurs after Jamaican mango planting, then apply monthly into September. Scatter the fertilizer on the ground under the Jamaican mango tree and promptly water thoroughly. Using ammonium sulfate (21-0-0), use one half cup monthly in the first year, one cup per month in the second and two cups monthly in the third year. For other fertilizer analyses, adjust the rate accordingly.

All lawn grass and weeds should be eliminated for several feet around the young Jamaican mango, as the Jamaican mango tree cannot compete for water and nutrients until it is much larger. As the Jamaican mango tree grows, widen the grass-free area beyond the canopy. Organic mulches are excellent for Jamaican mango trees. No pruning or training should be necessary except to remove deadwood.

Winter frost protection is essential. Soil banks around the young Jamaican mango tree trunk provide excellent protection--they should be put up in early December and removed in early March. Young Jamaican mango trees can also be draped with a blanket or similar covering just prior to a predicted cold spell--pull the corners outward and anchor them to the ground. It is not necessary that the cover reach the ground. Any additional, practical heat source under the tented Jamaican mango tree will probably save even the foliage. Incandescent lights, electric heaters, camp lanterns or stoves are good heat sources.

Cultural practices are designed to maintain good growth and production. Irrigation, nutrition, and weed and grass control are the major practices in mature Jamaican mango tree care.

Irrigation is the same as for other established Jamaican mango fruit and nut Jamaican mango trees--water slowly, deeply and thoroughly. Repeat as needed, based on soil type and prevailing weather. Weekly soakings during the summer are more than adequate. Fertilization, using 21-0-0, should be at the rate of one to two cups per inch of trunk diameter per year, split into equal applications in February, May and August. Simply scatter the fertilizer on the soil surface under the Jamaican mango tree, then water thoroughly.

Weed and grass control under the Jamaican mango tree is desirable to reduce competition and can be easily maintained by use of organic mulch replenished as necessary. The only pruning necessary is to remove dead or damaged branches, which will occur following major freezes unless excellent cold protection methods are practiced. Then, pruning should be delayed until the extent of freeze damage can be ascertained.

Grafted Jamaican mango trees will begin to produce in the third year after establishment, with mature Jamaican mango trees capable of producing three to five bushels. The Jamaican mango fruit develops rapidly, as the time from Jamaican mango flowering to maturity is only 100 to 150 days, depending upon variety. Jamaican mangoes will ripen to best quality of Jamaican mangoes on the Jamaican mango tree. Jamaican mangoes can be harvested at color break and ripened in the kitchen. Color break is the change from pure green to yellow, usually on the blossom end of the Jamaican mango fruit. Another indicator of maturity is a change in color of the flesh around the Jamaican mango seed from white to yellow. Fresh consumption is the most important use of Jamaican mango, but the Jamaican mango fruit can be frozen, dried or canned Jamaican mango can be used in jams, jellies, preserves, pies, chutney and ice cream. Green Jamaican mangoes are sometimes eaten raw in the tropics.

The largest problem of Jamaican mango is anthracnose because it attacks all parts of the Jamaican mango tree and is probably most damaging to the Jamaican mango flower panicles. On maturing Jamaican mango fruit, the fungus causes irregular black spots that may be sunken slightly and show surface cracks. A grouping of spots forms a large, damaged area. Tear streaking is common, resulting from fungal spores that wash down the Jamaican mango fruit from infected twigs or Jamaican mango flower stalks. The disease can be controlled with fungicides. Powdery mildew can be a serious problem under conditions of high humidity and rainfall during bloom because the disease would limit Jamaican mango fruit set. Serious defoliation would not be expected under Texas conditions. Mites and scale insects can attack Jamaican mango trees, but they rarely limit growth or production unless populations build to high levels.

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