Jamaican Jujube and the use of the Jamaican Fruit.
Submit A Site | Advertise | About Us 

Jamaican Jujube A Great Jamaican Fruit

How To Use The Jamaican Jujube In Jamaican Recipes

Jamaican Jujube (Jamaican coolie plum), more commonly known as the Chinese apple, is widely cultivated in dry areas throughout the tropics. The Chinese apple has a multitude of uses from culinary to medicinal values and also has the ability to tolerate extremely dry habitats. This makes the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) an extremely valuable Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree for many different cultures that live in such climates. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) also has the ability however to form dense stands and become invasive in some areas, including Fiji and Australia. In Australia Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) has a capacity to greatly expand its current range in northern and northeastern Australia. The main industry affected is the cattle industry but the species also has environmental impacts in Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) woodland and savanna ecosystems.

The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plant is a vigorous grower and has a rapidly-developing taproot. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) may be a bushy shrub 4 to 6 ft (1.2-1.8 m) high, or a Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree 10 to 30 or even 40 ft (3-9 or 12 m) tall; erect or wide-spreading, with gracefully drooping Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches and downy, zigzag Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches, thorn less or set with short, sharp straight or hooked spines. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) may be evergreen, or Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leafless for several weeks in hot summers. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves are alternate, ovate- or oblong-elliptic, 1 to 2 1/2 in (2.5-6.25 cm) long, 3/4 to 1 1/2 in (2-4 cm) wide; distinguished from those of the Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) by the dense, silky, whitish or brownish hairs on the underside and the short, downy petioles. On the upper surface, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is very glossy, dark-green, with 3 conspicuous, depressed, longitudinal veins, and there are very fine teeth on the margins.

The Indian Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is probably better known in Florida than the Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum). Indian Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s are sensitive to frost, produce an inferior quality Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit, and seem to have much less potential in Florida than Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s. Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s have been cultivated throughout China for more than 4000 years. Over 400 Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars have been selected and wild Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s grows in many parts of China. Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seedlings, which are inferior to the Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars, were introduced into Europe at the beginning of the Christian era and became widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean region. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seedlings were brought to the United States from Europe in 1837, but the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) was not until 1908 that some of the improved Chinese selections were introduced into the United States by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars have been tested in California and in the drier areas of the southwestern U.S. where Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) have been used mainly in dooryard Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plantings. A few Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s were Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) planted in the southeastern U.S. and some of these are now over 50 years old.

The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) originated in China where Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) have been cultivated for more than 4,000 years and where there are over 400 Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plants traveled beyond Asia centuries ago and today are grown to some extent in Russia, northern Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East and the southwestern United States. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seedlings, inferior to the Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars, were introduced into Europe at the beginning of the Christian era and carried to the U. S. in 1837. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) wasn't until 1908 that improved Chinese selections were introduced by the USDA.

 The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) can withstand a wide range of temperatures; virtually no temperature seems to be too high in summertime. Winter dormancy allows the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) to withstand temperatures to about -28° F, yet the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) requires only a small amount of winter chill in order for the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) to set Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plant revels in summer sun and heat, with the lack of either limiting Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit production more than winter cold. Yet Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s have Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruited in the Puget Sound and low Cascade regions of Washington State as well as in Pennsylvania. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruiting of some Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars has also been reported in northern Florida. The Indian Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum), which is more sensitive to frost, is grown in Florida, but the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is considered inferior. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees are not particularly suitable for container culture, but can be grown in this manner in a large container.

The 5-petalled Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flowers are yellow, tiny, in 2's or 3's in the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaf axils. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit of wild Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees is 1/2 to 1 in (1.25-2.5 cm) long. With sophisticated cultivation, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit reaches 2 1/2 in (6.25 cm) in length and 1 3/4 in (4.5 cm) in width. The form may be oval, obovate, round or oblong; the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) skin smooth or rough, glossy, thin but tough, turns from light-green to yellow, later becomes partially or wholly burnt-orange or red-brown or all-red. When slightly under ripe, the flesh is white, crisp, juicy, acid or sub acid to sweet, somewhat astringent, much like that of a crabapple. Fully ripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits are less crisp and somewhat mealy; overripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits are wrinkled, the flesh buff-colored, soft, spongy and musky. At first the aroma is apple like and pleasant but the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) becomes peculiarly musky as the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit ages. There is a single, hard, oval or oblate, rough central stone which contains 2 elliptic, brown Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds, 1/4 in (6 mm) long.

The small Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree with prickly thorn-like stipules and small simple alternate 3-nerved Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves white (or tawny) beneath, dark green above, ovate or sub elliptic, or slightly rhomboid, mostly less than 6 cm long, finely serrulate; Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flowers bisexual or male, greenish, in small cymes to 10 cm long; about 5 mm wide; calyx 5-toothed; petals 5; disc large; ovary with 2 styles; Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit a drupe with sweet sour mealy flesh and a 2-Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeded stone, orange when ripe. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flowers are white or greenish white and the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits are orange to brown, 2-3 cm long, with edible white pulp surrounding a 2-locular pyrene. In Jamaica, sometimes naturalized along roadsides and in agricultural land, usually near sea level but occasionally up to an elevation of about 600 m. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree grows in a wide variety of habitats including river levees, margins of springs and alluvial flats. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree can spread to form impenetrable thorny tickets which seriously hamper the movement of animals and humans. The thickets also out-compete more desirable native pasture species.

The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seed is spread by birds, native animals, stock, feral pigs and humans who eat the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit and expel the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds and by intentional Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plantings as a Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is apparently now widely naturalized from tropical Africa to Afghanistan and China, and also through Jamaica and into Australia and some Pacific archipelagoes; its range as an ornamental is even more extensive.

Grown in former agricultural land, to 600 m in Fiji, India and Jamaica, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree does best on sandy loam, neutral or slightly alkaline. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) also grows well on laterite, medium black soils with good drainage, or sandy, gravelly, alluvial soil of dry river-beds where the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is vigorously spontaneous. Even moderately saline soils are tolerated. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree is remarkable in its ability to tolerate water-logging as well as drought. In China and India, wild Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees are found up to an elevation of 5,400 ft (1,650 m). In India, the minimum shade temperature for survival is 44.6º to 55.4º F (7º-13º C); the maximum, 98.6º to 118º F (37º-48º C).

In Australia, this species grows on a wide variety of soil types, including cracking clays, solodic soils and deep alluvials, in the tropics and sub-tropics where the average annual rainfall is in the range 470-1200mm. In the drier parts of this range, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) grows best in riparian zones. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) forms impenetrable thickets which seriously hamper livestock management and reduces pasture production and accessibility. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is also likely to have significant environmental effects on tropical and subtropical Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) woodlands and savannas.

The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is a small, deciduous Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree, growing to 40 feet tall in Florida, but smaller in size in California. The naturally drooping Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree is graceful, ornamental and often thorny with Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches growing in a zigzag pattern. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) wood is very hard and strong. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars vary in size and conformation, with some being very narrow in habit and others being more widespread. One Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivar, the So, seems to be fairly dwarfing in habit. After 30 years of growth in an average site, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees can be 30 feet tall with a crown diameter of up to 15 feet. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plants send up suckers (often with intimidating spines) from their Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) roots, and these suckers can appear many feet from the mother Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plant. Currently, these Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root suckers must be controlled by mowing or hoeing.

The small, ovate or oval Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves are 1-2 inches long and a shiny bright green. In the autumn, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves turn bright yellow before falling. There are usually two spines at the base of each Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaf. Some spines may be hooked while others are long daggers. Virtually thorn less Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars is known. As the growing season commences, each node of a Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) woody branch produces one to ten Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches. Most of these are deciduous, falling from the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plant in autumn.

The inconspicuous, 1/5 inch diameter, white to greenish-yellow Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flowers are somewhat fragrant and produced in large numbers in the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaf axils. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flowering period extends over several months from late spring into summer. However, individual Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flowers are receptive to pollen for only one day or less. Pollination needs of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) are not clearly defined, but appear to be done by ants or other insects and possibly by the wind. Most Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars produce Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit without cross-pollination . The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is well protected from late spring frosts by delayed budding until all chance of cold weather has passed.

The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is a drupe, varying from round to elongate and from cherry-size to plum-size depending on Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivar. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) has a thin, edible Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) skin surrounding whitish flesh of sweet, agreeable flavor. The single hard stone contains two Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds. The immature Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is green in color, but as the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) ripens the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) goes through a yellow-green stage with mahogany-colored spots appearing on the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) skin as the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit ripens further. The fully mature Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is entirely red. Shortly after becoming fully red, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit begins to soften and wrinkle. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit can be eaten after the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) becomes wrinkled, but most people prefer them during the interval between the yellow-green stage and the full red stage. At this stage the flesh is crisp and sweet, reminiscent of an apple. Under dry conditions Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s lose moisture, shrivel and become spongy inside. Tests in Russia indicate very high vitamin C content. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit has been used medicinally for millennia by many cultures. One of its most popular uses is as a tea for sore throat

Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is very nutritious and is usually eaten fresh. In parts of India and North Africa, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves of ber are used as nutritious fodder for sheep and goats. The timber is hard, strong, fine-grained and reddish in color and is most often used to make agricultural implements. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches are used as framework in house construction and the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) wood makes good charcoal. In addition, this species of Jamaican jujube (collie plum) is used as firewood in many areas. This thorny Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree makes good live fencing and is an excellent agro forestry Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree to use in hedges.

In Ethiopia, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits are used to stupefy fish (possibly there is sufficient saponin for this purpose). The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves are readily eaten by camels, cattle and goats and are considered nutritious. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits are applied on cuts and ulcers; are employed in pulmonary ailments and fevers; and, mixed with salt and chili peppers, are given in indigestion and biliousness. The dried ripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is a mild laxative. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds are sedative and are taken, sometimes with buttermilk, to halt nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pains in pregnancy. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) check diarrhea, and are poulticed on wounds. Mixed with oil, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is rubbed on rheumatic areas. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves are applied as poultices and are helpful in liver troubles, asthma and fever and, together with catechu, are administered when an astringent is needed, as on wounds.

The bitter, astringent Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) bark decoction is taken to halt diarrhea and dysentery and relieve gingivitis. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) bark paste is applied on sores. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root is purgative. A Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root decoction is given as a febrifuge, taenicide and emmenagogue, and the powdered Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root is dusted on wounds. Juice of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) barks said to alleviate gout and rheumatism. Strong doses of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) barker Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root may be toxic. An infusion of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flowers serves as an eye lotion.

Its rate of spread is relatively low with dispersal through animal vectors that include cattle, feral pigs, wallabies, emus and bustards. Black cockatoos are significant Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seed predators. The most serious pest of ber is the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit flies, which attack the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits at the pea stage.  Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)is apparently now widely naturalized from tropical Africa to Afghanistan and China, and also through Malaysia, northern Australia, some Pacific archipelagoes such as the Philippines, and in parts of the Jamaican region; its range as an ornamental is even more extensive. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is also present in Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hawaii, and the Marshall Islands.

Propagates by Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seedlings, direct sowing, and Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root suckers as well as by cuttings. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds may remain viable for 2 1/2 years but the rate of germination declines with age. In Australia, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plants growing under natural conditions are capable of producing Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds once Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) reach a height of about 1m. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plants between 1 and 2m high produce, on average, less than five Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits per season. Large Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plants can produce 5000 or more Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits in a single season. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plants are capable of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seed production once Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) reaches a height of about 1m. Wild-growing Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plants in northern Australia may take 8 years to reach this size. Established Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plants are capable of vigorous sprouting and rapid shoot growth from the stem base and Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root crown following top-kill. Ber or Indian Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) (Ziziphus mauritiana) is a tropical Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree species, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree grows very fast even in dry regions reaching heights of 12 meters with a lifespan of 25 years. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is native to Asia (mainly India) though the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) can also be found in Africa. The ripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit, drupe is juicy, soft, and sweet in taste. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits ripen at different times even on a single Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree and look golden yellow when fully ripe. The size and shape depends on various varieties from the wild to the harvested kind. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is eaten raw or pickled or used in beverages. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is quite nutritious, and rich in vitamin C.

Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s should be given a warm, sunny location, but are otherwise relatively undemanding. Given adequate heat and sun, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees will thrive without any special care. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) should not be Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) planted in the shade of other Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees  Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s tolerate many types of soils, but prefer a sandy, well-drained soils and do less well in heavy, poorly drained soil. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is able to grow in soils with high salinity or high alkalinity. One of the outstanding qualities of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree is its tolerance of drought conditions. Regular watering, though, is important to assure a quality Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) crop.

Fertilizer requirements have not been studied, but Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s appear to do well with little or no fertilization. Light broadcast applications of a balanced fertilizer such as 8-8-8 NPK at two-month intervals during the growing season would probably speed growth. Do not fertilize until the newly Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) planted Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree has several months to get established.

Pruning: Un-pruned Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees produce as well as Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees that have been pruned. Extensive winter pruning, however, will keep the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plants in better health and produce more easily obtainable Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit.

Most Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars in the U.S. are grafted or budded onto a thorny Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) rootstalk which produces many suckers from the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) roots. There is evidence that Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars will Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root on hard or soft Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) wood cuttings. However, successes have been limited to date with this process of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plant reproduction. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s also can be propagated from Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seed, although Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) does not come true. Most Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars produce Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit without cross-pollination, but Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds from such self-pollination are usually not viable (such as from the Li or Lang Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars)

Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s should be set out 10 to 15 feet apart since Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) require high light intensities for good production. Upon setting out new, bare Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees, top the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plant to 3 or 4 feet and remove all side Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches to leave only a whip. New, stronger Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches will emerge from each bud just below the point where the old Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches were pruned. Pests and diseases: The Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) appears to have no serious disease, insect, or nematode pests in the U.S., hence, no spraying is necessary. Only the pocket gopher has shown a liking for the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) roots. One disease, witches broom, is prevalent in China and Korea and could be destructive to a new industry if allowed to enter into non-endemic areas.

The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) crop ripens non-simultaneously, and Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit can be picked for several weeks from a single Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree. If picked green, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s will not ripen. Ripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits may be stored at room temperature for about a week. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit may be eaten fresh, dried or candied. Fresh Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is much prized by certain cultures and is easily sold in Chinese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Indian markets. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree dried Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit stores indefinitely and may have good marketing potential as the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) dries on the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree without the use of sulfur preservative. Substitute the dried Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) wherever recipes call for raisins or dates. Dried Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s are a wonderful snack that can be prepared without the use of any preservative as is so commonly needed for other dried Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits. Li and Lang are the two most commonly available Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars. The currently propagated Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars are based on the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit ripening times in Jamaica. As interest increases, new Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars will be developed.

Li variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – Large, round Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit up to 3 ounces in mid-August. May be picked at the yellow-green stage. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree is many-branched, yet narrow and upright. Best eaten fresh. Best first Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree to have.

Ed Hegard variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – Very similar to the Lang and Thorn less.

Jin variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – An excellent elongated Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit. Very chewy when allowed to dry on the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree.

Globe variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – A new, Chinese introduction.

Honey Jar variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – Another new, Chinese introduction.

Lang variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – Large, pear-shaped Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit which must be fully colored to be best eating. This Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is best to let dry on the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree is upright and virtually spineless.

So variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – A Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree of most beautiful shape. At each node of the stem the branch decides to go off in a new direction. Hence, a very zigzag branching pattern which casts a beautiful shadow in the wintertime. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree is somewhat dwarfed.

Sugar Cane variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – Small to medium Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit which can be round to elongated. Extremely sweet Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit but on a very spiny Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plant. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is worth the spines!

Thorn less variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – Just as the name implies. Very few, if any spines occur. A Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit very similar to the Lang.

Admiral Wilkes variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – Collected on a South Seas expedition in the 1840's and Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) planted on the Capitol grounds in Washington, D.C. Elongated Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit which has been the very last to ripen, generally in mid to late November.

Chico (GI 7-62) variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is round but flattened on the bottom. Looks like small apples. Excellent either fresh or dried.

Sherwood variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – A Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seedling Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plant from Louisiana. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is very dense and sweet. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree is very narrow and upright with Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves that are weeping in habit.

Silverhill variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – An elongated Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit which has Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cropped well even in northern Florida. Virtually spineless.

Tigers tooth variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – Very similar to Silverhill.

Topeka variety of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) – From eastern Kansas and an excellent, late Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cropping Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit.

The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) may be a bushy shrub 4 to 6 ft (1.2-1.8 m) high, or a Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree 10 to 30 or even 40 ft (3-9 or 12 m) tall; erect or wide-spreading, with gracefully drooping Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches and downy, zigzag Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches, thorn less or set with short, sharp straight or hooked spines. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) may be evergreen, or Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leafless for several weeks in hot summers. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves are alternate, ovate- or oblong-elliptic, 1 to 2 1/2 in (2.5-6.25 cm) long, 3/4 to 1 1/2 in (2-4 cm) wide; distinguished from those of the Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) by the dense, silky, whitish or brownish hairs on the underside and the short, downy petioles. On the upper surface, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is very glossy, dark-green, with 3 conspicuous, depressed, longitudinal veins, and there are very fine teeth on the margins.

The Indian Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is native from the Province of Yunnan in southern China to Afghanistan, Malaysia and Queensland, Australia. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is cultivated to some extent throughout its natural range but mostly in India where the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is grown commercially and has received much horticultural attention and refinement despite the fact that the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) frequently escapes and becomes a pest. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) was introduced into Guam about 1850 but is not often Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) planted there or in Hawaii except as and ornamental. Specimens are scattered about the drier parts of the West Indies, the Bahamas, Colombia and Venezuela, Guatemala, Belize, and southern Florida. In Barbados, Jamaica and Puerto Rico the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree is naturalized and forms thickets in uncultivated areas. In 1939, 6 Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees from Malaysia were introduced into Israel and flourished there. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) bore very light Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) crops of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit heavily infested with Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit flies and were therefore destroyed to protect other Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees. In India, there are 90 or more Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars differing in the habit of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaf shape, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit form, size, color, flavor, keeping quality, and Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruiting season. Among the important Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars there are several common characteristics. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) skin of most is smooth and greenish-yellow to yellow. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) all have a  high pulp content with high ascorbic acid content and good flavor, in efforts to develop a superior midseason Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivar. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is medium to large and of fairly good quality and keeps well. These are commonly used in cooking and preserving. These Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) are recommended for vegetative propagation and commercial cultivation.

Pollen of the Indian Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is thick and heavy. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is not airborne but is transferred from Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flower to Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flower by honeybees, a yellow wasp, and the house fly. Several Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars are self-incompatible while others  are reciprocally cross-incompatible. In China and India, wild Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees are found up to an elevation of 5,400 ft (1,650 m) but commercial cultivation extends only up to 3,280 ft (1,000 m). In northern Florida, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is sensitive to frost. Young Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees may be frozen to the ground but will recover. Mature Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees have withstood occasional short periods of freezing temperatures without damage. In India, the minimum shade temperature for survival is 44.6º to 55.4º F (7º-13º C); the maximum, 98.6º to 118º F (37º-48º C). The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree requires a fairly dry climate with an annual rainfall of 6 to 88.5 in (15-225 cm), being unsuited to the lower, wetter parts of Malaysia. For high Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit production, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree needs full sun.

In India, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree does best on sandy loam, neutral or slightly alkaline. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) also grows well on laterite, medium black soils with good drainage, or sandy, gravelly, alluvial soil of dry river-beds where the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is vigorously spontaneous. Even moderately saline soils are tolerated. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree is remarkable in its ability to tolerate water-logging as well as drought. The Indian Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is widely grown from Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds, which may remain viable for 2 1/2 years but the rate of germination declines with age. Superior selections are grafted or budded onto Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seedlings of wild types. Vegetative propagation of highly prized varieties was practiced near Bombay about 1835 but kept secret until 1904, and then was quickly adopted by many people. Ring-budding has been popular in the past but has been largely superseded by shield-budding or T-budding. Grafted Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plants are less thorny than Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seedlings.

To select Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds for growing Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) rootstocks, the stones must be taken from Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits that have fully ripened on the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is put into a 17 to 18% salt solution and that entire float is discarded. The stones that sink are dipped in 500 ppm thiourea for 4 hours, then cracked and the separated Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds will germinate in 7 days. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds in un-cracked stones require 21 to 28 days. If Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds are sown in spring, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seedlings will be ready for budding in 4 months. Great care must be taken in transplanting nursery stock to the field because of the taproot. Therefore, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) rootstocks may be raised directly in the field and budding done in situ. Inferior Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seedling Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees, including wild Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees, can be worked to preferred Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars in June and some Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit will be borne a year later. From 1935 to 1939, the Punjab Department of Agriculture top-worked 50,000 Jamaican jujubes (Jamaican coolie plum) trees without cost to the growers. Air-layers will Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root if treated with IBA and NAA at 5,000 to 7,500 ppm and given 100 ppm boron. Cuttings of mature Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) wood at least 2 years old can be Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) rooted and result in better yields than those taken at a younger stage. At Punjab University, horticulturists have experimented with stooling as a means of propagation. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) transplanted one-year-old Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seedlings into stool beds, cut them back to 4 in (10 cm), found that the shoots would Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root only if ringed and treated with IBA, preferably at 12,000 ppm. Untrimmed Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees must be spaced at 36 to 40 ft (11-12 m), but carefully pruned Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees can be set at 23 to 26 ft (7-8 m). Pruning should be done during the first year of growth to reduce the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plant to one healthy shoot, and Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches lower than 30 in (75 cm) should be removed. At the end of the year, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plant is topped. During the 2nd and 3rd years, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree is carefully shaped. Thereafter, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree should be pruned immediately after harvesting at the beginning of dormancy and 25 to 50% of the previous year's growth may be removed. Sometimes a second lighter pruning is performed just before Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flowering. There will be great improvement in size, quality and number of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits the following season.

In India, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) has been traditional to apply manure and ash as fertilizer, but, in recent years, each Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree has been given annual treatments of 22 lbs (10 kg) manure with 1.1 lbs (0.5 kg) ammonium sulphate for every year of age up to the 5th year. More advanced farmers utilize only commercial fertilizer (NPK) in larger amounts, twice annually, the first at the rate of 110 lbs/acre (about 110 kg/ha) and the second at 172 lbs/acre (about 172 kg/ha). Growth regulators are now being utilized to bring about early and heavier blooming, enhance Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit setting, prevent Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit drop, and increase Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit size, and promote uniform ripening. These practices have demonstrated that an improved Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) crop can bring in 2 to 3 times the revenue of that achieved by conventional practices. During hot weather and also in the period of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit development, irrigation is highly beneficial. Water-stress will cause immature Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit drop. In India, water has been applied as many as 35 times during the winter months. Zinc and boron sprays are sometimes applied to enhance glossiness of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits. In India, some types ripen as early as October, others from mid-February to mid-March, others in March, or mid-March, to the end of April. In the Assiut Governorate, there are 2 Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) crops a year, the main in early spring, the second in the fall. In India, 2 or 3 pickings are done by hand from ladders, a worker being capable of manually harvesting about 110 lbs (50 kg) per day. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits remaining on the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree are shaken down. After wrapping in white cloth, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits are put into paper-lined burlap bags holding 110 lbs (50 kg) for long trips to markets throughout the country.

Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seedling Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees bear 5,000 to 10,000 small Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits per year in India. Superior grafted Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees may yield as many as 30,000 Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits. The best Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivar in India, with Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits normally averaging 30 to the lb (66 to the kg), yields 175 lbs (77 kg) annually. Special cultural treatment increases both Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit size and yield. The Indian Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) stands handling, shipment and marketing very well. Storage experiments in India showed that slightly under ripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits ripen and keep for 8 days under wheat straw, 7 days under Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves, and 4 days in carbide (50 to 60 g). The greatest enemies of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) in India are Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit flies. Some Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars are more susceptible than others, the flies preferring the largest, sweetest Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits, 100% of which may be attacked while on a neighboring Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree, bearing a smaller, less-sweet type, only 2% of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) crop may be damaged. The larvae pupate in the soil and the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) has been found that treatment of the ground beneath the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree helps reduce the problem. Control is possible with regular and effective spraying of insecticide.

A Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaf-eating caterpillar and the green slug caterpillar attack the foliage. A mite forms scale-like galls on twigs retarding growth and reducing the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) crop. Lesser pests include a small caterpillar that bores into the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit; the gray-hairy caterpillar. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree is subject to shrouding by a parasitic vine. Powdery mildew causes defoliation and Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit-drop. Sooty mold causes Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves to fall. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaf spot results from infestation. Witches'-broom disease caused by a mycoplasma-like organism has also been found on Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plants. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) proved to be transmitted by grafting or budding diseased scions onto healthy Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seedlings. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaf rust ranges from mild to severe on all commercial Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits on the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree are attacked by parasites while twigs and Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches may not be affected. In storage, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits may be spotted by fungi and susceptible to Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit rots.

In India, the ripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits are mostly consumed raw, but are sometimes stewed. Slightly under ripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits are candied by a process of pricking, immersing in a salt solution gradually raised from 2 to 8%, draining, immersing in another solution of 8% salt and 0.2% potassium metabisulphite, storing for 1 to 3 months, rinsing and cooking in sugar syrup with citric acid. Residents of Southeast Asia eat the unripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits with salt. Ripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits crushed in water form a very popular cold drink. Ripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits are preserved by sun-drying and a powder is prepared for out-of-season purposes. Acid types are used for pickling or for chutneys. In Africa, the dried and fermented pulp is pressed into cakes resembling gingerbread. Young Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves are cooked and eaten in Indonesia. In Venezuela, a Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) liqueur is made and sold. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seed kernels are eaten in times of famine. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit contains high levels of protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrates, total sugars, ash, calcium, phosphorus, iron, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, citric acid and ascorbic acid.

In Ethiopia, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits are used to stupefy fish (possibly there is sufficient saponin for this purpose). The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves contain saponin because Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is known to produce lather if rubbed in water. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) wood is reddish, close-grained, fine-textured, hard, tough, durable, planning and polishing well. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) has been used to line wells, to make legs for bedsteads, boat ribs, agricultural implements, house poles, tool handles, yokes, gunstocks, saddle Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees, sandals, golf clubs, household utensils, toys and general turnery. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is also valued as firewood; is a good source of charcoal and activated carbon. In tropical Africa, the flexible Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches are wrapped as retaining bands around conical thatched roofs of huts, and are twined together to form thorny corral walls to retain livestock.

The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves are readily eaten by camels, cattle and goats and are considered nutritious. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves are gathered as food for silkworms. In Burma, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is used in dyeing silk. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) bark yields a non-fading, cinnamon-colored dye in Kenya. In India and Queensland, the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flowers are rated as a minor source of nectar for honeybees. The honey is light and of fair flavor. The Indian Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is one of several Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees grown in India as a host for the lac insect, Kerria lacca, which sucks the juice from the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves and encrusts them with an orange-red resinous substance. Long ago, the lac was used for dyeing, but now the purified resin is the shellac of commerce. Low grades of shellac are made into sealing wax and varnish; higher grades are used for fine lacquer work, lithograph-ink, polishes and other products. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees are grown around peasant huts and heavily inoculated with broodlac in October and November every year, and the resin is harvested in April and May. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees must be pruned systematically to provide an adequate number of young shoots for inoculation.

The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits are applied on cuts and ulcers; are employed in pulmonary ailments and fevers; and, mixed with salt and chili peppers, are given in indigestion and biliousness. The dried ripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is a mild laxative. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds are sedative and are taken, sometimes with buttermilk, to halt nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pains in pregnancy. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) check diarrhea, and are poulticed on wounds. Mixed with oil, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is rubbed on rheumatic areas. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves are applied as poultices and are helpful in liver troubles, asthma and fever and, together with catechu, are administered when an astringent is needed, as on wounds. The bitter, astringent Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) bark decoction is taken to halt diarrhea and dysentery and relieve gingivitis. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) bark paste is applied on sores. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root is purgative. A Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root decoction is given as a febrifuge, taenicide and emmenagogue, and the powdered Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root is dusted on wounds. Juice of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) barks said to alleviate gout and rheumatism. Strong doses of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) barker Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root may be toxic. An infusion of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flowers serves as an eye lotion

Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees are very precocious, often producing some Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit the second year from Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seed or grafting. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s is potentially reliable producers of heavy Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) crops. Older Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees in the southwestern U.S. have yielded up to 100 pounds of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit per year, and an orchard in Oklahoma did not miss a Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) crop in 30 years. Production problems have been reported in several areas, however. In the cooler areas of coastal California and in the northeastern U.S., Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cropping failures have been due to cool or short summers. Low production may also result from lack of cross pollination or from use of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars with low yield potential. China has more than 400 selected Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars. Eighty-three Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) varieties were introduced into the U.S. by the U.S. Department of Agriculture by 1914. Several other Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars were developed in a breeding program in California. Few of these varieties have ever been tested in the eastern U.S., and most are no longer readily available because of the closing of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plant Introduction Station at Chico, California. Two varieties that have done well in the West and are available from nurseries in California are 'Li' and 'Lang'. A variety known locally as 'Tigertooth' has been propagated in Southwest Alabama where the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) has Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruited reliably for many years, and a variety called 'Leon Burk' is popular with Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) enthusiasts in South Georgia. Neither 'Tigertooth' nor 'Leon Burk' is commercially available, but if further tests show them successful, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) will probably be propagated and sold by nurseries in North Florida.

If picked green, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s will not ripen. Ripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit may be eaten fresh, stored under refrigeration, dried, or candied. Ripe Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit store poorly on the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree, and this, along with the variation in ripening time of various Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits on the same Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree and the inability of green Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit to ripen after picking limits the potential of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) as a commercial shipping Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit. In North Florida, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s usually ripens in late August and September. Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s are quite cold-hardy and survive winter temperatures below 0°F without apparent injury. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) also appears to have a low chilling requirement, at least low enough to do well in North Florida. There could be a problem with inadequate chilling in South Florida, but this has not been determined. Long, hot summers appear necessary for good Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruiting.

Most Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars in the U.S. are grafted or budded onto a thorny Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) rootstock which produces many suckers from the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) roots. Reports from the Soviet Union indicate that many Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root readily by soft Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) wood cuttings. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) root suckers can be an annoyance with grafted Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees and cuttings may be preferable. Little is known, however, about the relative performance of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) rooted and grafted Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s also can be propagated from Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seed if the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flowers have been cross pollinated. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seeds from self-pollinations are usually unviable. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s does not come true from Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seed. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s prefers sandy, well-drained soils. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) does poorly in heavy, poorly-drained soil. An outstanding quality of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree is its tolerance of drought conditions which frequently prevail in soils with low moisture-holding capacity such as Florida sands. Requirements have not been studied, but Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s appears to do well with little or no fertilization. Light broadcast applications of a balanced fertilizer such as 8-8-8 at 2-month intervals during the growing season would probably speed growth. Do not put fertilizer in the hole when Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) planting Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees and do not fertilize until the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) roots have had several months to get established.

Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars vary in size and conformation. After 30 years of growth in an average site, Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees of most Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivars will be 40-50 feet tall with a crown diameter of 15-20 feet. For dooryard Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plantings Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s should be set 15-20 feet apart. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s require high light intensities for good production and should be Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) planted, if possible, where Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) will not be heavily shaded by other Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees. The effects of pruning have not been studied but un-pruned Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees seem to do well. The Chinese Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) appears to have no serious disease, insect, or nematode pests in the U.S. and no spraying is necessary. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s appear to have considerable potential for dooryard Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plantings in North and Central Florida for the following reasons: freedom from pests, good adaptation, tolerance for poor soils, ornamental growth habit, precocity of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruiting, ease of propagation and avoidance of spring frost damage by late Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flowering. Disadvantages of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree include limited availability of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) plants, lack of information on Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) cultivar performance and the fact that Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) planting a Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) tree whose Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit one has never tasted necessarily entails some risk of disappointment.

The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) trees average 25 feet in height and are covered with a rough, brown bark. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) have many Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches, with annual thorny Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches bearing alternate, oval-oblong Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves of a clear green color, with three to five strongly-marked, longitudinous veins. The small Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flowers are pale yellow and solitary. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit is a blood-red drupe, the size and shape of an olive, sweet, and mucilaginous in taste, slightly astringent. The pulp becomes softer and sweeter in drying, and the taste more like wine. Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) has pointed, oblong stones. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is classed with the raisin, date, and fig as a pectoral Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruit, being nutritive and demulcent. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is eaten both fresh and dried. A syrup and a tisane were formerly made from the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum), but the berries are now little used in medicine.

Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) paste, or 'Pâte de Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s,' is made of gum-arabic and sugar. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) may be dissolved in a decoction of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum)s and evaporated, but is considered as good a demulcent without their addition. The Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) is frequently merely mixed with orange-Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) flower water. A decoction of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) roots has been used in fevers. An astringent decoction of Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) leaves and Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) branches is made in large quantities in Algeria, and seems likely to replace the cachou. Z. Lotos, sometimes also called Z. sativa, of Northern Africa and Z. Jujuba of the East Indies possess similar properties, and are used in their respective countries. Z. Lotos is thought to have been one of the sources of the famous sweet Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) fruits from which the ancient Lotophagi took their name, the liqueur prepared from which caused those who partook of the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) to forget even their native countries in its enjoyment. The Arabs call the Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) seedra. In Arabia a kind of bread is made of them by exposing them to the sun for a few days and then pounding them in a Jamaican jujube (Jamaican coolie plum) wooden mortar to separate the stones. The meal is mixed with water and formed into cakes which after drying in the sun resemble sweet gingerbread.

 Download Jamaican Cooking Made Easy Third Edition


Jamaican Products & Promotions: