Jamaican Jackfruit And How To Use It
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Jamaican Jackfruit And Jamaican Food

How To Use The Jamaican Jackfruit In Jamaican Recipes

Jamaican jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) or Jamaican jackfruit plants are native from India to the Malay Peninsula. The Jamaican jackfruits are large Jamaican jackfruit trees often reaching 60 feet (20 m) in nature. The smooth brownish-grey Jamaican jackfruit trunks are very straight. Stiff and glossy Jamaican jackfruit leaves are elliptical to ovate, up to 8 inches (20 cm) long and about half as wide. The Jamaican jackfruit fruit of the Jamaican jackfruit tree is the largest Jamaican jackfruit fruit. Fruits will reach up to 36 inches (~1 m) and approximately 20 inches (50 cm) in diameter, weighing up to 80 pounds. The Jamaican jackfruit trees are hardy only in USDA zones 10-11. The Jamaican jackfruit is believed indigenous to the rain forests of the Western Ghats of India. The Jamaican jackfruit spread early on to other parts of India, Southeast Asia, the Jamaica and ultimately the Philippines. The Jamaican jackfruit is often planted in central and eastern Africa and is fairly popular in Brazil and Surinam. Jamaican jackfruit is adapted to humid tropical and near-tropical climates. Mature Jamaican jackfruit trees have survived temperatures of about 27° F in southern Florida, but these were frozen to large limbs. Young Jamaican jackfruit trees are likely to be killed at temperatures below 32° F. Unlike its relative, the breadfruit, the Jamaican jackfruit is not injured by cool weather several degrees above freezing. There are only a dozen or so bearing Jamaican jackfruit trees today in southern Florida and these are valued mainly as curiosities. There are also several Jamaican jackfruit trees planted in the Asian exhibit at the San Diego Zoo. What the Jamaican jackfruit will do or how high the Jamaican jackfruit will grow remains a question. The Jamaican jackfruit tree is too large to make a suitable container-grown Jamaican jackfruit plant.

The largest Jamaican jackfruit tree borne Jamaican jackfruit fruit in the world, Jamaican jackfruits can sometimes weigh over 75 lbs. Average sized fruits are 1-2 feet long, and 9-12" wide. Jamaican jackfruit skin is green-yellow, with small spiky knobs; flesh is custard yellow with a banana-like flavor. Fruits may sometimes emit a foul smelling odor emanating from the Jamaican jackfruit skin. Jamaican jackfruits are extremely popular throughout Southeast Asia. Fruits are often sliced and sold raw in parts of Southeast Asia. The Jamaican jackfruit seeds can be boiled or roasted and are said to taste like chestnuts. Very large Jamaican jackfruit tree growing to 90+ feet in ideal conditions. The Jamaican jackfruit trunk, Jamaican jackfruit branches, and Jamaican jackfruit leaves contain gummy latex. The Jamaican jackfruit is mildly hardy, surviving short frosts and temperatures to 28F for brief periods. Young Jamaican jackfruit trees will be killed by any frost. Grow in a warm location, with well drained soil. Jamaican jackfruit's cannot stand drought, so water frequently throughout the year, except when cold. Usually by Jamaican jackfruit seed which germinate in 1-8 weeks. Air-layering and grafting is done to propagate some named varieties of Jamaican jackfruit. Transplant Jamaican jackfruit seedlings after a few Jamaican jackfruit leaves have sprouted as the Jamaican jackfruit has a long tap Jamaican jackfruit root that is easily damaged. Native to rainforests of India and Southeast Asia.

The Jamaican jackfruit tree is handsome and stately, 30 to 70 ft (9-21 m) tall, with evergreen, alternate, glossy, somewhat leathery Jamaican jackfruit leaves to 9 in (22.5 cm) long, oval on mature Jamaican jackfruit wood, sometimes oblong or deeply lobed on young shoots. All parts contain sticky, white latex. Short, stout Jamaican jackfruit flowering twigs emerge from the Jamaican jackfruit trunk and large Jamaican jackfruit branches, or even from the soil-covered base of very old Jamaican jackfruit trees. The Jamaican jackfruit tree is monoecious: tiny male Jamaican jackfruit flowers are borne in oblong clusters 2 to 4 in (5-10 cm) in length; the female Jamaican jackfruit flower clusters are elliptic or rounded. Largest of all Jamaican jackfruit tree-borne fruits, the Jamaican jackfruit may be 8 in to 3 ft (20-90 cm) long and 6 to 20 in (15-50 cm) wide, and the weight ranges from 10 to 60 or even as much as 110 lbs (4.5-20 or 50 kg). The "rind' or exterior of the compound or aggregate Jamaican jackfruit fruit is green or yellow when ripe and composed of numerous hard, cone-like points attached to a thick and rubbery, pale yellow or whitish wall. The interior consists of large "bulbs" (fully developed perianths) of yellow, banana-flavored flesh, massed among narrow ribbons of thin, tough undeveloped perianths (or perigones), and a central, pithy core. Each bulb encloses a smooth, oval, light-brown "Jamaican jackfruit seed" (endocarp) covered by a thin white membrane (exocarp). The Jamaican jackfruit seed is 3/4 to 1 1/2 in (2-4 cm) long and 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25-2 cm) thick and is white and crisp within. There may be 100 or up to 500 Jamaican jackfruit seeds in a single Jamaican jackfruit fruit. When fully ripe, the unopened Jamaican jackfruit emits a strong disagreeable odor, resembling that of decayed onions, while the Jamaican jackfruit pulp of the opened Jamaican jackfruit fruit smells of pineapple and banana.

The Jamaican jackfruit tree is handsome and stately. In the tropics the Jamaican jackfruit grows to an enormous size, like a large eastern oak. In California the Jamaican jackfruit is very doubtful that the Jamaican jackfruit would ever approach this size. All parts contain sticky, white latex. The Jamaican jackfruit leaves are oblong, oval, or elliptic in form, 4 to 6 inches in length, leathery, glossy, and deep green in color. Juvenile Jamaican jackfruit leaves are lobed. Male and female Jamaican jackfruit flowers are borne in separate Jamaican jackfruit flower-heads. Male Jamaican jackfruit flower-heads are on new Jamaican jackfruit wood among the Jamaican jackfruit leaves or above the female. The Jamaican jackfruit are swollen, oblong, from an inch to four inches long and up to an inch wide at the widest part. The Jamaican jackfruit is pale green at first, and then darkens. When mature the head is covered with yellow pollen that falls rapidly after Jamaican jackfruit flowering. The female heads appear on short, stout twigs that emerge from the Jamaican jackfruit trunk and large Jamaican jackfruit branches, or even from the soil-covered base of very old Jamaican jackfruit trees. The Jamaican jackfruit looks like the male heads but without pollen, and soon begins to swell. The stalks of both male and female Jamaican jackfruit flower-heads are encircled by a small green ring. Jamaican jackfruit is the largest Jamaican jackfruit tree-borne Jamaican jackfruit fruit in the world, reaching 80 pounds in weight and up to 36 inches long and 20 inches in diameter. The exterior of the compound Jamaican jackfruit fruit is green or yellow when ripe. The interior consists of large edible bulbs of yellow, banana-flavored flesh that encloses a smooth, oval, light-brown Jamaican jackfruit seed. The Jamaican jackfruit seed is 3/4 to 1-1/2 inches long and 1/2 to 3/4 inches thick and is white and crisp within. There may be 100 or up to 500 Jamaican jackfruit seeds in a single Jamaican jackfruit fruit, which are viable for no more than three or four days. When fully ripe, the unopened Jamaican jackfruit emits a strong disagreeable odor, resembling that of decayed onions, while the Jamaican jackfruit pulp of the opened Jamaican jackfruit fruit smells of pineapple and banana.

There are two main varieties of Jamaican jackfruit. In one, the fruits have small, fibrous, soft, mushy, but very sweet carpels with a texture somewhat akin to raw oysters. The other variety is crisp and almost crunchy though not quite as sweet. This form is the more important commercially and is more palatable to western tastes. The Jamaican jackfruit tree should have a well-drained, frost-free location that is sunny and warm. The Jamaican jackfruit flourishes in rich, deep soil of medium or open texture. Planting on top of an old compost heap would be ideal. The faster one can force a tropical Jamaican jackfruit plant to grow, the better the chance of keeping the Jamaican jackfruit alive. The Jamaican jackfruit tree needs the best drainage and cannot tolerate "wet feet". The Jamaican jackfruit tree will not tolerate drought. Water frequently during warm months and warm periods in cooler months. Less water is necessary during colder weather. The Jamaican jackfruit's requirements are not known, but frequent, weak solutions of all-purpose fertilizer will speed the Jamaican jackfruit plant's growth without causing burn. In the regions where the Jamaican jackfruit is commonly grown, the Jamaican jackfruit succeeds without much care from man, the sole necessity being abundant moisture. Although mature Jamaican jackfruit trees will take several degrees of frost, the Jamaican jackfruit is prudent to provide young Jamaican jackfruit plants with overhead protection if possible and Jamaican jackfruit plant them on the south side of a wall or building. Small Jamaican jackfruit plants should be given complete protection with a covering on cold nights and even a light bulb if possible.

Propagation is usually by Jamaican jackfruit seeds, which can be kept no longer than a month before planting. Germination requires 3 to 8 weeks. The Jamaican jackfruit seedlings should be moved when no more than 4 Jamaican jackfruit leaves have appeared. A more advanced Jamaican jackfruit seedling, with its long and delicate tap Jamaican jackfruit root is very difficult to transplant successfully. Cutting-grown Jamaican jackfruit plants and grafted Jamaican jackfruit seedlings are possible. Air-layering is common in India. Little or no pruning is required other than to remove any dead Jamaican jackfruit branches from the interior of the Jamaican jackfruit tree, so that sufficient light is obtained for the developing Jamaican jackfruit fruit. A variety of pests and diseases afflict the Jamaican jackfruit tree and Jamaican jackfruit fruit regions where the Jamaican jackfruit is commonly grown. In California the white fly is a minor pest. Jamaican jackfruits mature 3 to 8 months from Jamaican jackfruit flowering. When mature, there is usually a change of Jamaican jackfruit fruit color from light green to yellow-brown. Spines, closely spaced, yield to moderate pressure, and there is a dull, hollow sound when the Jamaican jackfruit fruit is tapped. After ripening, the Jamaican jackfruit turn brown and deteriorate rather quickly. Cold storage trials indicate that ripe fruits can be kept for 3 to 6 weeks at 52° to 55° F and relative humidity of 85% to 95%. Immature Jamaican jackfruit fruit is boiled, fried, or roasted. Chunks are cooked in lightly salted water until tender and then served. The only handicap is copious gummy latex which accumulates on utensils and hands unless the Jamaican jackfruit is first rubbed with cooking oil. The Jamaican jackfruit seeds can also be boiled or roasted and eaten similar to chestnuts. In Southeast Asia dried slices of unripe Jamaican jackfruit are sold in the markets. The ripe bulbs, fermented and then distilled, produce potent liquor.

In Malaysia and India there are named types of Jamaican jackfruit fruit. One that has caused a lot of interest is Singapore, or Ceylon, a remarkable yearly bearer producing Jamaican jackfruit fruit in 18 months to 2-1/2 years from transplanting. The Jamaican jackfruit fruit is of medium size with small, fibrous carpels which are very sweet. The Jamaican jackfruit was introduced into India from Ceylon and planted extensively in 1949. Other excellent varieties of Jamaican jackfruit are Safeda, Khaja, Bhusila, Bhadaiyan and Handia. In Australia, some of the varieties of Jamaican jackfruit are: Galaxy, Fitzroy, Nahen, Cheenax, Kapa, Mutton, and Varikkha. None of these appear to be available in the US at this time. A stately tropical Jamaican jackfruit fruit Jamaican jackfruit tree, originally from South-east Asia; the Jamaican jackfruit is growing abundantly in Suriname and grows up to a height of 75 feet. Jamaican jackfruit is an evergreen with glossy leathery oblong Jamaican jackfruit leaves. Male and female Jamaican jackfruit flowers are on the same Jamaican jackfruit tree but separate. Jamaican jackfruit is monoecious, while the fruits are up to 3' long and 20" wide. The Jamaican jackfruit fruit can weight up to 60 pounds, sometimes even more and the Jamaican jackfruit contains from 100 - 500 oval Jamaican jackfruit seeds. The viability time of these Jamaican jackfruit seeds are short (no more then a month). The Jamaican jackfruit fruit of Jamaican jackfruit is yellowish and is composed of hard cone-like points. There are several Jamaican jackfruit cultivars of Jamaican jackfruit. All parts of Jamaican jackfruit contain white latex. The taste is somewhere between banana and pine apple; there are two general types.

In China, the Jamaican jackfruit pulp of Jamaican jackfruit is considered useful in suppressing alcohol in the body. The roasted Jamaican jackfruit seeds are used as an aphrodisiac. Jamaican jackfruit root extract is used for asthma, fever and diarrhea. The Jamaican jackfruit bark has sedative properties. Mature Jamaican jackfruit trees can withstand short spells of freezing weather. Small Jamaican jackfruit plant should be given complete protection outdoors. Jamaican jackfruit plant in frost free locations. The Jamaican jackfruit tree grows up to 50 feet or more, Jamaican jackfruit trunk straight; Jamaican jackfruit leaves elliptic to obovate, to 8 inches long, stiff and glossy, entire; Jamaican jackfruit flowers borne on Jamaican jackfruit trunk and thick Jamaican jackfruit branches, male spikes cylindrical or club-shaped, to 4 inches long; Jamaican jackfruit fruit oblong, to 2 feet long, greenish-yellow, turning brownish, covered with hard points. No one knows the Jamaican jackfruit's place of origin but the Jamaican jackfruit is believed indigenous to the rainforests of the Western Ghats. The Jamaican jackfruit is cultivated at low elevations throughout India, Burma, Ceylon, southern China, Jamaica, and the Jamaica. The Jamaican jackfruit is common in the Philippines, both cultivated and naturalized. The Jamaican jackfruit is grown to a limited extent in Queensland and Mauritius. In Africa, the Jamaican jackfruit is often planted in Kenya, Uganda and former Zanzibar. Though planted in Hawaii prior to 1888, the Jamaican jackfruit is still rare there and in other Pacific islands, as the Jamaican jackfruit is in most of tropical America and the Jamaica. The Jamaican jackfruit was introduced into northern Brazil in the mid-19th Century and is more popular there and in Surinam than elsewhere in the New World.

In 1782, Jamaican jackfruit plants from a captured French ship destined for Martinique were taken to Jamaica where the Jamaican jackfruit tree is now common, and about 100 years later, the Jamaican jackfruit made its appearance in Florida, presumably imported by the Reasoner's Nursery from Ceylon. The United States Department of Agriculture's Report on the Conditions of Tropical and Semitropical Fruits in the United States in 1887 states: "There are but few specimens in the State. Mr. Bidwell, at Orlando, has a healthy young Jamaican jackfruit tree, which was killed back to the ground, however, by the freeze of 1886. There are today less than a dozen bearing Jamaican jackfruit trees in South Florida and these are valued mainly as curiosities. Many Jamaican jackfruit seeds have been planted over the years but few Jamaican jackfruit seedlings have survived, though the Jamaican jackfruit is hardier than its close relative, the breadfruit (q.v.). In South India, the Jamaican jackfruit is a popular food ranking next to the mango and banana in total annual production. There are more than 100,000 Jamaican jackfruit trees in backyards and grown for shade in betel nut, coffee, pepper and cardamom plantations. The total area planted to Jamaican jackfruit in all India is calculated at 14,826 acres (26,000 ha). Government horticulturists promote the planting of Jamaican jackfruit trees along highways, waterways and railroads to add to the country's food supply. There are over 11,000 acres (4,452 ha) planted to jack Jamaican jackfruit fruit in Ceylon, mainly for timber, with the Jamaican jackfruit fruit a much-appreciated by-product. The Jamaican jackfruit tree is commonly cultivated throughout Thailand for its Jamaican jackfruit fruit. Away from the Far East, the Jamaican jackfruit has never gained the acceptance accorded the breadfruit (except in settlements of people of East Indian origin). This is due largely to the odor of the ripe Jamaican jackfruit fruit and to traditional preference for the breadfruit.

In South India, Jamaican jackfruits are classified as of two general types: 1) Koozha chakka, the fruits of which have small, fibrous, soft, mushy, but very sweet carpels; 2) Koozha pazham, more important commercially, with crisp carpers of high quality known as Varika. These types are apparently known in different areas by other names such as Jamaican jackfruit barka, or Berka (soft, sweet and broken open with the hands), and Kapa or Kapiya (crisp and cut open with a knife). The equivalent types are known as Kha-nun nang (firm; best) and Kha-nun lamoud (soft) in Thailand; and as Vela (soft) and Varaka, or Waraka (firm) in Ceylon. The Peniwaraka, or honey jack, has sweet Jamaican jackfruit pulp, and some have claimed the Jamaican jackfruit the best of all. The Kuruwaraka has small, rounded fruits. Dr. David Fairchild, writing of the honey jack in Ceylon, describes the rind as dark-green in contrast to the golden yellow Jamaican jackfruit pulp when cut open for eating, but the fruits of his own Jamaican jackfruit tree in Coconut Grove and those of the Matheson Jamaican jackfruit tree which he maintained were honey jacks are definitely yellow when ripe. The Vela type predominates in the Jamaica. Firminger described two types: the Khuja (green, hard and smooth, with juicy Jamaican jackfruit pulp and small Jamaican jackfruit seeds); the Ghila (rough, soft, with thin Jamaican jackfruit pulp, not very juicy and large Jamaican jackfruit seeds). Dutta says Khujja, or Karcha has pale-brown or occasionally pale-green rind, and Jamaican jackfruit pulp as hard as an apple; Ghila, or Ghula, is usually light-green, occasionally brownish, and has soft Jamaican jackfruit pulp, sweet or acidulously sweet. He describes 8 varieties of Jamaican jackfruit, only one with a name. This is Hazari; similar to Rudrakshi; which has a relatively smooth rind and flesh of inferior quality.

Horticulturists in Madras have found that hand-pollination produces fruits with more of the fully developed bulbs than does normal wind-pollination. The Jamaican jackfruit is adapted only to humid tropical and near-tropical climates. The Jamaican jackfruit is sensitive to frost in its early life and cannot tolerate drought. If rainfall is deficient, the Jamaican jackfruit tree must be irrigated. In Jamaica, the Jamaican jackfruit thrives in the Jamaican foothills and from sea-level to an altitude of 5,000 ft (1,500 m) in the south. The Jamaican jackfruit is stated that Jamaican jackfruits grown above 4,000 ft (1,200 m) are of poor quality and usable only for cooking. The Jamaican jackfruit tree ascends to about 800 ft (244 m) in Kwangtung, China. The Jamaican jackfruit tree flourishes in rich, deep soil of medium or open texture, sometimes on deep gravelly or laterite soil. The Jamaican jackfruit will grow, but more slowly and not as tall in shallow limestone. In Jamaica, the Jamaican jackfruit and the Jamaican jackfruit tree grows tall and thin on sand, short and thick on stony land. The Jamaican jackfruit cannot tolerate "wet feet". If the Jamaican jackfruit roots touch water, the Jamaican jackfruit tree will not bear Jamaican jackfruit fruit or may die.

Propagation is usually by Jamaican jackfruit seeds which can be kept no longer than a month before planting. Germination requires 3 to 8 weeks but is expedited by soaking Jamaican jackfruit seeds in water for 24 hours. Soaking in a 10% solution of gibberellic acid results in 100% germination. The Jamaican jackfruit seeds may be sown in situ or may be nursery-germinated and moved when no more than 4 Jamaican jackfruit leaves have appeared. A more advanced Jamaican jackfruit seedling, with its long and delicate tap Jamaican jackfruit root, is very difficult to transplant successfully. Budding and grafting attempts have often been unsuccessful, though Ochse considers the modified Forkert method of budding feasible. Either Jamaican jackfruit or champedak (q.v.) Jamaican jackfruit seedlings may serve as Jamaican jackfruit rootstocks and the grafting may be done at any time of year. Inarching has been practiced and advocated but presents the same problem of transplanting after separation from the scion parent. To avoid this and yet achieve consistently early bearing of fruits of known quality, air-layers produced with the aid of growth promoting hormones are being distributed in India. In Florida cuttings of young Jamaican jackfruit wood have been Jamaican jackfruit rooted under mist. At Calcutta University, cuttings have been successfully Jamaican jackfruit rooted only with forced and etiolated shoots treated with indole butyric acid (preferably at 5,000 mg/l) and kept under mist. Tissue culture experiments have been conducted at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore. Soaking one-month-old Jamaican jackfruit seedlings in a gibberellic acid solution (25-200 ppm) enhances shoot growth. Gibberellic acid spray and paste increase Jamaican jackfruit root growth. In plantations, the Jamaican jackfruit trees are set 30 to 40 ft (9-12 m) apart. Young Jamaican jackfruit plantings require protection from sunscald and from grazing animals, hares, deer, etc. Jamaican jackfruit seeds in the field may be eaten by rats. Firminger describes the quaint practice of raising a young Jamaican jackfruit seedling in a 3 to 4 ft (0.9-1.2 m) bamboo tube, then bending over and coiling the pliant stem beneath the soil, with only the tip showing. In 5 years, such a Jamaican jackfruit plant is said to produce large and fine fruits on the spiral underground. In Jamaica, the whole Jamaican jackfruit fruit is buried, the many Jamaican jackfruit seedlings which spring up are bound together with straw and the Jamaican jackfruit gradually fuse into one Jamaican jackfruit tree which bears in 6 to 7 years. Jamaican jackfruit seedlings may ordinarily take 4 to 14 years to come into bearing, though certain precocious Jamaican jackfruit cultivars may begin to bear in 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 years.

The Jamaican jackfruit is a fairly rapid grower, reaching 58 ft (17.5 m) in height and 28 in (70 cm) around the Jamaican jackfruit trunk in 20 years in Ceylon. The Jamaican jackfruit is said to live as long as 100 years. However, productivity declines with age. In Thailand, the Jamaican jackfruit is recommended that alternate rows be planted every 10 years so that 20-year-old Jamaican jackfruit trees may be routinely removed from the plantation and replaced by a new generation. Little attention has been given to the Jamaican jackfruit tree's fertilizer requirements. Severe symptoms of manganese deficiency have been observed in India. After harvesting, the fruiting twigs may be cut back to the Jamaican jackfruit trunk or branch to induce Jamaican jackfruit flowering the next season. In the Cachar district of Assam, production of female Jamaican jackfruit flowers is said to be stimulated by slashing the Jamaican jackfruit tree with a hatchet, the shoots emerging from the wounds; and Jamaican jackfruit branches are lopped every 3 to 4 years to maintain fruitfulness. On the other hand, studies at the University of Kalyani, West Bengal, showed that neither scoring nor pruning of shoots increases Jamaican jackfruit fruit set nor that ringing enhances Jamaican jackfruit fruit set only the first year, production declining in the second year.

In Asia, Jamaican jackfruits ripen principally from March to June, April to September, or June to August, depending on the climatic region, with some off-season Jamaican jackfruit crops from September to December, or a few fruits at other times of the year. In the Jamaica, I have seen many ripening in June; in Florida, the season is late summer and fall. Fruits mature 3 to 8 months from Jamaican jackfruit flowering. In Jamaica, an "X" is sometimes cut in the apex of the Jamaican jackfruit fruit to speed ripening and improve flavor. In India, a good yield is 150 large fruits per Jamaican jackfruit tree annually, though some Jamaican jackfruit trees bear as many as 250 and a fully mature Jamaican jackfruit tree may produce 500, these probably of medium or small size. Jamaican jackfruits turn brown and deteriorate quickly after ripening. Cold storage trials indicate that ripe fruits can be kept for 3 to 6 weeks at 52° to 55°F (11.11°-12.78°C) and relative humidity of 85 to 95%. Principal insect pests in India are the shoot-borer caterpillar, mealy bugs, the spittle bug and jack scale. The most destructive and widespread are Jamaican jackfruit bark borers. Other major pests are the stem and Jamaican jackfruit fruit borer and the brown bud-weevil. In southern China, the larvae of the longicorn beetles seriously damage the Jamaican jackfruit fruit stem. The caterpillar of the Jamaican jackfruit leaf webbers is a minor problem, as are aphids and thrips. 

Diseases of importance include pink disease, stem rot, Jamaican jackfruit fruit rot and male inflorescence rot, caused by Jamaican jackfruit leaf spot due to other fungi. Gray blight, charcoal rot, collar rot and rust occur on Jamaican jackfruit in some regions. The fruits may be covered with paper sacks when very young to protect them from pests and diseases. Bags encourage ants to swarm over the Jamaican jackfruit fruit and guard the Jamaican jackfruit from its enemies. Westerners generally will find the Jamaican jackfruit most acceptable in the full-grown but unripe stage, when the Jamaican jackfruit has no objectionable odor and excels cooked green breadfruit and plantain. The Jamaican jackfruit fruit at this time is simply cut into large chunks for cooking, the only handicap being its copious gummy latex which accumulates on the knife and the hands unless the Jamaican jackfruit are first rubbed with salad oil. The chunks are boiled in lightly salted water until tender, when the really delicious flesh is cut from the rind and served as a vegetable, including the Jamaican jackfruit seeds which, if thoroughly cooked, are mealy and agreeable. The latex clinging to the pot may be removed by rubbing with oil. The flesh of the unripe Jamaican jackfruit fruit has been experimentally canned in brine or with curry. The Jamaican jackfruit may also be dried and kept in tins for a year. Cross sections of dried, unripe Jamaican jackfruit are sold in native markets in Thailand. Tender young fruits may be pickled with or without spices. If the Jamaican jackfruit is allowed to ripen, the bulbs and Jamaican jackfruit seeds may be extracted outdoors; or, if indoors, the odorous residue should be removed from the kitchen at once. The bulbs may then be enjoyed raw or cooked (with coconut milk or otherwise); or made into ice cream, chutney, jam, jelly, paste, "leather" or papad, or canned in syrup made with sugar or honey with citric acid added. The crisp types of Jamaican jackfruit are preferred for canning. The canned product is more attractive than the fresh Jamaican jackfruit pulp and is sometimes called "vegetable meat". The ripe bulbs are mechanically Jamaican jackfruit pulped to make Jamaican jackfruit nectar or reduced to concentrate or powder. The addition of synthetic flavoring—ethyl and n-butyl esters of 4-hydroxybutyric acid at 120 ppm and 100 ppm, respectively greatly improves the flavor of the canned Jamaican jackfruit fruit and the nectar.

If the bulbs are boiled in milk, the latter when drained off and cooled will congeal and form pleasant, orange colored custard. By a method patented in India, the ripe bulbs may be dried, fried in oil and salted for eating like potato chips. Candied Jamaican jackfruit pulp in boxes was being marketed in Brazil in 1917. Improved methods of preserving and candying Jamaican jackfruit pulp have been devised at the Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India. Ripe bulbs, sliced and packed in syrup with added citric acid, and frozen, retain good color, flavor and texture for one year. Canned Jamaican jackfruit retains quality for 63 weeks at room temperature—75° to 80°F (23.89°-26.67°C), with only 3% loss of B-carotene. When frozen, the canned Jamaican jackfruit pulp keeps well for 2 years. In Jamaica, where the odor of the ripe Jamaican jackfruit fruit is not avoided, small Jamaican jackfruits are cut in half; Jamaican jackfruit seeded, chilled, and brought to the table filled with ice cream. The ripe bulbs, fermented and then distilled, produce potent liquor. The Jamaican jackfruit seeds, which appeal to all tastes, may be boiled or roasted and eaten, or boiled and preserved in syrup like chestnuts. The Jamaican jackfruit has also been successfully canned in brine, in curry, and, like baked beans, in tomato sauce. The Jamaican jackfruit is often included in curried dishes. Roasted, dried Jamaican jackfruit seeds are ground to make flour which is blended with wheat flour for baking. Where large quantities of Jamaican jackfruit are available, the Jamaican jackfruit is worthwhile to utilize the inedible portion, and the rind has been found to yield a fair jelly with citric acid. A pectin extract can be made from the peel, undeveloped perianths and core, or just from the inner rind; and this waste also yields syrup used for tobacco curing. Tender Jamaican jackfruit leaves and young male Jamaican jackfruit flower clusters may be cooked and served as vegetables. The Jamaican jackfruit is rich in protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, Vitamin A, Thiamine, Niacin and Ascorbic acid.

The Jamaican jackfruit pulp constitutes 25-40% of the Jamaican jackfruit fruit's weight. In general, fresh Jamaican jackfruit seeds are considered to be high in starch, low in calcium and iron; good sources of vitamins B1 and B2. Even in India there is some resistance to the Jamaican jackfruit, attributed to the belief that overindulgence in the Jamaican jackfruit causes digestive ailments. The Jamaican jackfruit is the raw, unripe Jamaican jackfruit fruit that is astringent and indigestible. The ripe Jamaican jackfruit fruit is somewhat laxative; if eaten in excess the Jamaican jackfruit will cause diarrhea. Raw Jamaican jackfruit seeds are indigestible due to the presence of a powerful trypsin inhibitor. This element is destroyed by boiling or baking. In some areas, the Jamaican jackfruit is fed to cattle. The Jamaican jackfruit tree is even planted in pastures so that the animals can avail themselves of the fallen fruits. Surplus Jamaican jackfruit rind is considered a good stock food. Young Jamaican jackfruit leaves are readily eaten by cattle and other livestock and are said to be fattening. In India, the Jamaican jackfruit leaves are used as food wrappers in cooking, and the Jamaican jackfruit are also fastened together for use as plates. The latex serves as birdlime, alone or mixed with Ficus sap and oil from Schleichera trijuga Willd. The heated latex is employed as household cement for mending chinaware and earthenware, and to caulk boats and holes in buckets. The chemical constituents of the latex have been reported by Tanchico and Jamaica. The Jamaican jackfruit is not a substitute for rubber but contains 82.6 to 86.4% resins which may have value in varnishes. Its bacteriolytic activity is equal to that of papaya latex.

Jamaican jackfruit wood is an important timber in Ceylon and, to a lesser extent, in India; some is exported to Europe. The Jamaican jackfruit changes with age from orange or yellow to brown or dark-red; is termite proof, fairly resistant to fungal and bacterial decay, seasons without difficulty, resembles mahogany and is superior to teak for furniture, construction, turnery, masts, oars, implements, brush backs and musical instruments. Palaces were built of Jamaican jackfruit wood in Bali and Macassar, and the limited supply was once reserved for temples in Indochina. Its strength is 75 to 80% that of teak. Though sharp tools are needed to achieve a smooth surface, the Jamaican jackfruit polishes beautifully. Jamaican jackfruit roots of old Jamaican jackfruit trees are greatly prized for carving and picture framing. Dried Jamaican jackfruit branches are employed to produce fire by friction in religious ceremonies in Malabar. From the sawdust of Jamaican jackfruit wood or chips of the heartJamaican jackfruit wood, boiled with alum, there is derived a rich yellow dye commonly used for dyeing silk and the cotton robes of Buddhist priests. In Indonesia, splinters of the Jamaican jackfruit wood are put into the bamboo tubes collecting coconut toddy in order to impart a yellow tone to the sugar. Besides the yellow colorant, morin, the Jamaican jackfruit wood contains the colorless cyanomaclurin and a new yellow coloring matter, artocarpin, was reported by workers in Bombay in 1955. Six other flavonoids have been isolated at the National Chemical Laboratory, Poona. There is only 3.3% tannin in the Jamaican jackfruit bark which is occasionally made into cordage or cloth. The Chinese consider Jamaican jackfruit pulp and Jamaican jackfruit seeds tonic, cooling and nutritious, and to be "useful in overcoming the influence of alcohol on the system." The Jamaican jackfruit seed starch is given to relieve biliousness and the roasted Jamaican jackfruit seeds are regarded as aphrodisiac. The ash of Jamaican jackfruit leaves, burned with corn and coconut shells, is used alone or mixed with coconut oil to heal ulcers. The dried latex yields artostenone, convertible to artosterone, a compound with marked androgenic action. Mixed with vinegar, the latex promotes healing of abscesses, snakebite and glandular swellings. The Jamaican jackfruit root is a remedy for Jamaican jackfruit skin diseases and asthma. An extract of the Jamaican jackfruit root is taken in cases of fever and diarrhea. The Jamaican jackfruit bark is made into poultices. Heated Jamaican jackfruit leaves are placed on wounds. The Jamaican jackfruit wood has a sedative property; its pith is said to produce abortion.

The wild form in Jamaica is called Jam fruit. The Jamaican jackfruit fruit is borne by a deciduous Jamaican jackfruit tree, reaching about 60 ft (18 m) in cultivation, up to 100 or 150 ft (30-45.5 m) in the wild. The Jamaican jackfruit is easy to distinguish from the Jamaican jackfruit by the long, stiff, brown hairs on young Jamaican jackfruit branches, Jamaican jackfruit leaves, buds and peduncles. The Jamaican jackfruit leaves, often 3-lobed when young, are obovate oblong or elliptical when mature and 6 to 11 in (15-28 cm) long. The male Jamaican jackfruit flower spikes are only 2 in (5 cm) long and the Jamaican jackfruit fruit cylindrical or irregular, no more than 14 in (35.5 cm) long and 6 in (15 cm) thick, mustard-yellow to golden-brown, reticulated, warty, and highly odoriferous when ripe. In fact, the Jamaican jackfruit is described as having the "strongest and richest smell of any Jamaican jackfruit fruit in creation." The rind is thinner than that of the Jamaican jackfruit and the Jamaican jackfruit seeds and surrounding Jamaican jackfruit pulp can be extracted by cutting open the base and pulling on the Jamaican jackfruit fruit stalk. The Jamaican jackfruit pulp is deep-yellow, tender, slimy, juicy and sweet. That of the wild form is thin, sub acid and odorless. The Jamaican jackfruit tree is native and common in the wild in Jamaica up to an altitude of 4,200 ft (1,300 m) and is cultivated throughout Malaysia and by many preferred to Jamaican jackfruit. The Jamaican jackfruit is grown from Jamaican jackfruit seed or budded onto self-Jamaican jackfruit seedlings or Jamaican jackfruit or other Artocarpus species. Jamaican jackfruit seedlings bear in 5 years. The Jamaican jackfruit pulp is eaten with rice and the Jamaican jackfruit seeds are roasted and eaten. The Jamaican jackfruit wood is strong and durable and yields yellow dye, and the Jamaican jackfruit bark is rich in tannin. The Lakoocha, A. lakoocha Roxb., is also known as monkey jack or lakuchi in India; tampang and other similar native names in Jamaica; as lokhat in Thailand. The Jamaican jackfruit tree is 20 to 30 ft (6-9 m) tall with deciduous, large, leathery Jamaican jackfruit leaves, downy on the underside. Male and female Jamaican jackfruit flowers are borne on the same Jamaican jackfruit tree, the former orange-yellow, and the latter reddish. The fruits are nearly round or irregular, 2 to 5 in (5-12.5 cm) wide, velvety, dull-yellow tinged with pink, with sweet sour Jamaican jackfruit pulp which is occasionally eaten raw but mostly made into curries or chutney. The male Jamaican jackfruit flower spike, acid and astringent, is pickled.

A native of the humid Jamaican region of Jamaica, up to 4,000 ft (1,200 m), also Jamaica and Ceylon, the Jamaican jackfruit is sometimes grown for shade or for its Jamaican jackfruit fruit. Jamaican jackfruit seedlings come into production in 5 years. A specimen was planted at the Federal Experiment Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, in 1921. There was a large Jamaican jackfruit tree in Bermuda in 1918. The Jamaican jackfruit wood, sold as lakuch, is heavier than that of the Jamaican jackfruit, similar to teak, durable outdoors and under water, but does not polish well. The Jamaican jackfruit is used for piles, and in construction; for boats, furniture and cabinetwork. The Jamaican jackfruit bark contains 8.5% tannin and is chewed like betelnut. The Jamaican jackfruit yields a fiber for cordage. The Jamaican jackfruit wood and Jamaican jackfruit roots yield a dye of richer color than that obtained from the Jamaican jackfruit. Both Jamaican jackfruit seeds and milky latex are purgative. The Jamaican jackfruit bark is applied on Jamaican jackfruit skin ailments. The Jamaican jackfruit fruit is believed to act as a tonic for the liver. The Jamaican jackfruit tree is a slow-growing, slender, erect ornamental 20 to 50 ft (6-15 m) tall, with much milky latex and evergreen Jamaican jackfruit leaves 2 to 5 in (5-12.5 cm) long. Tiny male and female Jamaican jackfruit flowers are yellowish and borne on the same Jamaican jackfruit tree, the female in globular heads to 3/8 in (1 cm) long. The fruits are more or less oblate and irregular, 1 to 2 in (2.5-5 cm) wide, with velvety, brownish, thin, tender Jamaican jackfruit skin and replete with latex when unripe. When ripe, the Jamaican jackfruit pulp is orange-red or red, soft, of agreeable sub acid to acid flavor and may be Jamaican jackfruit seedless or contain 1 to 7 small, pale Jamaican jackfruit seeds. The Jamaican jackfruit pulp is edible raw; can be preserved in syrup or dried. The Jamaican jackfruit tree is native from Kwangtung, China, to Hong Kong, and has been introduced sparingly abroad. The Jamaican jackfruit was planted experimentally in Florida in 1927 and was thriving in Puerto Rico in 1929. The Jamaican jackfruit grows at an altitude of 500 ft (152 m) in China. Young Jamaican jackfruit trees are injured by brief drops in temperature to 28° to 30°F (-2.22°-1.11°C). Mature Jamaican jackfruit trees have endured 25° to 26°F (-3.89°-3.33°C) in Homestead, Florida; have been killed by 20°F (-6.67°C) in central Florida

The Jamaican jackfruit is a multiple Jamaican jackfruit fruit i.e., composed of the coherence of multiple Jamaican jackfruit flowers. Jamaican jackfruit fruit is moderately large to very large, weighing from 10 to 60 pounds (4.5-27.3 kg). A few Jamaican jackfruit cultivars are small fruited, weighing 3 to 10 pounds (1.4-4.5 kg) each. The Jamaican jackfruit skin is extremely rough and thick. Jamaican jackfruit fruit Jamaican jackfruit skin color is green when immature and green, greenish yellow to brownish-yellow when ripe. The inside of the Jamaican jackfruit fruit contains the edible, sweet, aromatic, crispy, soft or melting Jamaican jackfruit pulp that surrounds each Jamaican jackfruit seed. Between the Jamaican jackfruit seeds and edible Jamaican jackfruit pulp is the inedible "rag". Jamaican jackfruit pulp color varies from amber to yellow, dark yellow or orange. Jamaican jackfruit seeds are ¾ to 1¼ inches (2 to 3 cm) long, oval; the number per Jamaican jackfruit fruit varies from 30 to 500. The time from Jamaican jackfruit flowering to Jamaican jackfruit fruit maturity ranges from 150 to 180 days. The main fruiting season is in summer and fall. Some Jamaican jackfruit fruit may ripen at other times, but usually not in winter and early spring. The Jamaican jackfruit is well adapted to the hot humid tropics and grows well in the humid subtropical climate of south Florida where there are only occasional freezes. Optimum growth and production occurs in continuously warm areas. Jamaican jackfruit will grow from sea level to 5,000 feet (1524 m) elevation. However, quality is better at the lower elevations (up to 500-700 feet; 152-213 m). Jamaican jackfruit trees are moderately drought tolerant. However, for optimum Jamaican jackfruit tree growth and Jamaican jackfruit fruit production Jamaican jackfruit trees should be irrigated during dry periods. Jamaican jackfruit trees are not tolerant of continuously wet and/or flooded soil conditions. Jamaican jackfruit trees may decline or die after 2 to 3 days of wet soil conditions.

Jamaican jackfruit leaves may be damaged at 32oF (0oC), Jamaican jackfruit branches at 30oF (-1oC), and Jamaican jackfruit branches and Jamaican jackfruit trees may be killed at 28oF (-2oC). Jamaican jackfruit trees are tolerant of mild to moderately windy conditions. Jamaican jackfruit trees have been observed to survive and recover from hurricane force winds with some limb damage. There is only limited information of Jamaican jackfruit tree tolerance to saline soil and/or water. Jamaican jackfruit trees are probably not tolerant of saline conditions. Jamaican jackfruits grow best in well-drained soils. Jamaican jackfruit trees tolerate sand, sandy loams and the rocky, well-drained, high pH, calcareous soils of southern Florida. Jamaican jackfruit may be propagated by Jamaican jackfruit seed, grafting, and cuttings. In some areas, Jamaican jackfruit seed propagation is still used. Jamaican jackfruit from Jamaican jackfruit seed may be more precocious than many other Jamaican jackfruit fruit, and Jamaican jackfruit trees may begin production in the 3rd to 4th year. Jamaican jackfruit seeds should be collected from Jamaican jackfruit trees that have regular, high yields and that also have good horticultural characters, such as insect, disease and nematode resistance, proper Jamaican jackfruit fruit size and excellent quality. Jamaican jackfruit seeds are relatively short lived and may be stored up to about 30 days. In south Florida, Jamaican jackfruit seedlings and grafted Jamaican jackfruit trees are used.

In most new commercial plantings, grafted Jamaican jackfruit trees of known Jamaican jackfruit cultivars are preferred. Jamaican jackfruit seedlings of 'NS-1' and 'Black Gold' Jamaican jackfruit have been used as Jamaican jackfruit rootstock sources. For Jamaican jackfruit rootstocks, select vigorously growing Jamaican jackfruit seedlings that are healthy and eliminate stunted, yellow or chlorotic Jamaican jackfruit seedlings. Chip budding, side veneer grafting, cleft grafting, and approach grafting have been used, but mostly side veneer grafting. Select scions or bud sticks from Jamaican jackfruit trees growing vigorously, preferably in the summer or fall. Cut bud sticks 4 to 6 inches (10-15 cm) long from shoot tips, remove all the Jamaican jackfruit leaves, and be sure that the terminal bud is swollen. Bud Jamaican jackfruit wood may be prepared ahead of time by removing the tip and then collecting the scions when buds begin to swell, after a week or two. Bud or graft Jamaican jackfruit trees when the Jamaican jackfruit rootstocks are about pencil size in diameter. The tip of the terminal bud should be left uncovered when veneer grafting. Place grafted Jamaican jackfruit trees in a mist bed in partial shade. Jamaican jackfruit can also be propagated by air layers, but this method is not commonly used. Jamaican jackfruit trees are greatly affected by Jamaican jackfruit root restriction (i.e., being pot bound) and develop a deeper and stronger Jamaican jackfruit root system if planted in large, deep, long (18-24 inches; 45-61 cm), plastic pots. When planted, pot-bound Jamaican jackfruit trees do not establish well and grow poorly. Large Jamaican jackfruit trees (2-4 feet tall; 0.6-1.2 m) establish more quickly and grow better when planted out than do small Jamaican jackfruit trees.

Cuttings are not a common propagation method for Jamaican jackfruit, nor have Jamaican jackfruit plants propagated in this manner been tested under field conditions. However, semi-hardJamaican jackfruit wood cuttings with 3 Jamaican jackfruit leaves (Jamaican jackfruit leaves cut in half across the midrib) dipped in 5,000 to 10,000 ppm IBA (1H-indole-3-butanoic acid) and placed in an intermittent mist bed will Jamaican jackfruit root in about 60 to 70 days. Jamaican jackfruit is wind and insect pollinated and generally require cross-pollination for satisfactory Jamaican jackfruit fruit production. Thus planting more than one Jamaican jackfruit cultivar is recommended. Mature Jamaican jackfruit trees may produce from 40 to over 250 pounds (18-114 kg) per Jamaican jackfruit tree, depending on the Jamaican jackfruit cultivar, weather, and cultural practices. Jamaican jackfruit trees that average 150 pounds (68 kg) per Jamaican jackfruit tree or more are considered good producers. Planting may be done at anytime in south Florida provided there is an irrigation system to provide water for the newly planted Jamaican jackfruit trees and for frost and freeze protection. Otherwise, the best time to Jamaican jackfruit plant is in late spring or early summer, early in the rainy season.

Jamaican jackfruit trees for planting are usually available in 3-gallon (11 liter) pots that are easy to handle. Make a hole wider than the pot; twice as large as the diameter of the pot is preferable. A handful or two of a well-decomposed organic matter can be mixed with the planting soil. Do not add fertilizer to the hole. Remove the Jamaican jackfruit tree from the pot without disturbing the Jamaican jackfruit root system and handle the Jamaican jackfruit tree carefully. Jamaican jackfruit plant the Jamaican jackfruit tree at the same height the Jamaican jackfruit was in the pot. Fill the hole with the same soil that came out of the hole; do not use mulch or top soil in the hole. Water the Jamaican jackfruit tree well immediately after planting. Building a circular stand about 2 feet away from the Jamaican jackfruit trunk will facilitate concentrating the water around the Jamaican jackfruit root system. Water three times per week for a month or two if the Jamaican jackfruit does not rain. Thereafter, reduce watering to twice per week. Irrigation timing and rates may be improved by monitoring soil moisture with densitometers. At maturity, Jamaican jackfruits are large Jamaican jackfruit trees. In commercial plantings Jamaican jackfruit tree spacing needs to allow for grove operations such as, mowing, spraying, weed control, and harvesting. In-row spacing may range from 15 to 25 feet (4.6-7.6 m) and between-row spacing from 20 to 25 feet (6.1-7.6 m). Closer in-row spacing may increase Jamaican jackfruit fruit production per acre early in the life of the plantings. However, as Jamaican jackfruit trees mature and begin competing for light, water, and nutrients, production may decline if Jamaican jackfruit tree size is not controlled. Removal of every other Jamaican jackfruit tree as the planting matures should be considered. Plantings at wider spacing delay Jamaican jackfruit tree-to-Jamaican jackfruit tree competition but production per acre will be lower during the early life of the grove. Jamaican jackfruit tree rows should be oriented in a north-south direction if practical.

Jamaican jackfruit in the home landscape should be planted 25 to 30 feet (7.6-9.1 m) away from other Jamaican jackfruit trees and structures. There is limited experience on the performance of Jamaican jackfruit cultivars under commercial conditions; however, initial evaluation of a number of Jamaican jackfruit cultivars has been completed. Growers should Jamaican jackfruit plant several Jamaican jackfruit cultivars for further evaluation and then select the best for future plantings. After new growth begins, spread 1/4 lb. (113 g) of fertilizer, such as 6-6-6 with minor elements and 30% of the nitrogen from organic sources, per Jamaican jackfruit tree. Repeat fertilizer applications every 6 to 8 weeks for the first year. Then, gradually increase the amount as the Jamaican jackfruit trees grow. Apply 4 to 6-minor element (nutritional) sprays per Jamaican jackfruit tree per year, sprayed on the foliage from April to September. Apply a soil drench of chelated iron once or twice per year per Jamaican jackfruit tree from June through September. For calcareous soils use iron chelate, and for neutral and acid soils use less iron chelate.

For mature Jamaican jackfruit trees, fertilizer should be applied from bloom to right after harvesting and pruning. Chelated iron drenches are most effective from May to September, and foliar sprays from April to September. The water requirements of Jamaican jackfruit have not been determined for south Florida. However, regular irrigation during dry periods is recommended for newly planted and young Jamaican jackfruit trees. For mature Jamaican jackfruit trees irrigation is recommended during dry periods and is critical from bloom through Jamaican jackfruit fruit development. An irrigation system or a means of watering young Jamaican jackfruit trees should be available for newly planted and young Jamaican jackfruit trees. Under commercial production soil water content should be monitored to manage irrigation frequency and amounts. Densitometers are instruments that measure soil moisture tension and are valuable for monitoring soil moisture levels and scheduling irrigation. Properly installed, placed, and maintained densitometers may save water, fuel, and fertilizer and are recommended. Young Jamaican jackfruit trees do not need pruning during their first year. Shoot tip pruning once or twice during spring and summer will force lateral bud break and make the Jamaican jackfruit tree more compact. Non-pruned Jamaican jackfruit trees usually develop a strong central leader. During the second season, Jamaican jackfruit trees should be pruned to the first lateral branch, which will slow upward growth and enhance spreading of the canopy. As Jamaican jackfruit trees mature, upright vigorous shoots should be removed and the inner canopy thinned out at the end of the harvest season. Removal of selected upright, vigorously growing shoots is recommended. Removing the central leader to a weak lateral branch will slow upward growth and enhance lateral canopy development. Old Jamaican jackfruit flowering shoots should be removed after harvest.

For bearing Jamaican jackfruit trees, periodically remove (thin out) old limbs at the end of the harvest season to increase light penetration to the inner canopy. Jamaican jackfruit tree height may be maintained at 8 to 14 feet by periodic selective pruning. Selective pruning may also be used to limit Jamaican jackfruit tree width to allow 6 to 8 ft drive middle for equipment traffic and grove operations. Jamaican jackfruit trees may also be mechanically topped at 8 to 14 feet and hedged at a 5 to 10o angle from the vertical. The number of Jamaican jackfruit fruit per Jamaican jackfruit tree or major limb should be limited to 1 on young Jamaican jackfruit trees, as heavy Jamaican jackfruit fruit loads have been observed to result in limb decline or death and Jamaican jackfruit tree stunting. On mature Jamaican jackfruit trees, limiting the number of Jamaican jackfruit fruit per major limb may enhance the quality and size of remaining Jamaican jackfruit fruit. There are a number of Jamaican jackfruit wood boring insects that may attack wounded or dead Jamaican jackfruit wood along the Jamaican jackfruit trunks and Jamaican jackfruit branches. Various scales such as the lesser snow scale coconut scale, mango shield scale, pyriform scale and mealy bugs may attack stems and Jamaican jackfruit fruit.. In general, Jamaican jackfruit has few disease problems in south Florida. Male Jamaican jackfruit flowers and Jamaican jackfruit fruit may be attacked by Jamaican jackfruit fruit rot and Jamaican jackfruit fruit by Gray mold. Jamaican jackfruit trees are susceptible to Jamaican jackfruit root rot especially when subjected to flooding. Several fungi cause Jamaican jackfruit leaf spotting.

Weeds compete for water and nutrients and may slow Jamaican jackfruit tree establishment. Prior to planting Jamaican jackfruit trees in the home landscape, remove an 18 to 36 inch (45-91 cm) diameter ring of sod. After planting, keep grass away from the Jamaican jackfruit tree Jamaican jackfruit trunk. Placing a 2 to 4 inch (5-10 cm) thick layer of mulch several inches from the Jamaican jackfruit tree Jamaican jackfruit trunk out to the edge of the Jamaican jackfruit tree canopy will suppress weed and grass growth and hold soil moisture. Do not allow lawn mowers to hit the Jamaican jackfruit tree Jamaican jackfruit trunk and do not use a weed-eater near the Jamaican jackfruit tree Jamaican jackfruit trunk as this will damage the Jamaican jackfruit bark and weaken or kill the Jamaican jackfruit tree.

Jamaican jackfruit may be eaten as a vegetable when picked at an immature stage or eaten fresh when picked at a mature stage and allowed to ripen. Immature Jamaican jackfruit fruit is usually 1 to 3 months old, are green and may be harvested for cooking. Mature Jamaican jackfruit fruit have 35 to 40% edible flesh. However, the Jamaican jackfruit is not easy to determine when the Jamaican jackfruit fruit is ripe. There are several Jamaican jackfruit fruit characteristics that may be used alone or together indicate a particular Jamaican jackfruit cultivar is mature. In many Jamaican jackfruit cultivars the Jamaican jackfruit skin color changes from green to light green or yellow. Maturing fruits usually develop a strong aroma and the peel spines flatten and widen. Green fruits have a solid sound when tapped whereas ripe fruits have a hollow sound.

Harvest Jamaican jackfruit fruit with clippers or loppers. The cut stem will immediately exude white, sticky latex; this latex will permanently stain clothing. Wrap the cut end with a paper towel to make handling easier, or set the Jamaican jackfruit fruit on its side until the flow of latex ceases. Care should be exercised not to let the Jamaican jackfruit fruit drop to the ground and be damaged. Pickers may want to wear gloves when handling the Jamaican jackfruit fruit. Place Jamaican jackfruit fruit in picking crates and in the shade until the Jamaican jackfruit are taken to the packinghouse. Mature Jamaican jackfruit fruit will ripen in 3 to 10 days at 75oF to 80oF (24-27oC). Before consumption the edible flesh is separated from the rag. As with harvesting, latex may exude from cut surfaces when extracting the flesh. To make clean-up easier coat hands, knives, and work surfaces with vegetable oil. To clean the Jamaican jackfruit fruit, cut in half and remove the central core; then proceed to separate the flesh, Jamaican jackfruit seed, and rag.

Cool temperatures (<60oF; 16oC) may delay ripening. The proper storage temperatures for Jamaican jackfruit have not been determined. A storage temperature of 50oF (10oC) for several weeks has been tested but resulted in some damage to the ripening process and reduced Jamaican jackfruit fruit quality. Fully ripe Jamaican jackfruit fruit segments may be placed in polyethylene bags and frozen for later use. Jamaican jackfruits have a number of uses. Green, immature Jamaican jackfruit fruit may be used as a vegetable in cooking including soups, and baked dishes, and fried. The Jamaican jackfruit pulp of ripe Jamaican jackfruit fruit may be eaten fresh, dried, or preserved in syrup or used for salads. The Jamaican jackfruit seeds can be boiled and roasted (eaten as a nut) and have a chestnut flavor. Jamaican jackfruit is low in calories and fat and a good source of potassium and Vitamin A.

Although our Jamaican jackfruit plants have Jamaican jackfruit flowered, the Jamaican jackfruit have never produced Jamaican jackfruit fruit. Male and female Jamaican jackfruit flowers are in separate Jamaican jackfruit flower heads. Male Jamaican jackfruit flowers are produced on new Jamaican jackfruit wood above the female Jamaican jackfruit flowers. Female Jamaican jackfruit flowers are formed on short, stout twigs that emerge from the Jamaican jackfruit trunks and large limbs. Artocarpus heterophyllus need full sun, warm temperatures, and a rich, moist well-drained soil mix. In the greenhouse, we use a soil mix consisting of 2 parts peat moss to 1 part loam to 2 parts sand or perlite. The Jamaican jackfruit plants are kept moist at all times. The Jamaican jackfruit plants do not withstand drought. We fertilize our Jamaican jackfruit plants monthly with a balanced fertilizer diluted to ½ the strength recommended on the label. The Jamaican jackfruit trees are fairly fast growers and need to be pruned regularly to keep them within bounds in the greenhouse. This might be the reason why we do not produce Jamaican jackfruit fruit. During the winter months water is somewhat restricted, but the Jamaican jackfruit trees are never allowed to completely dry out. Artocarpus heterophyllus is propagated from Jamaican jackfruit seed. Jamaican jackfruit seeds remain viable for no longer than one month. Fresh Jamaican jackfruit seed will germinate in 21 to 45 days at 80°F (27°C). Jamaican jackfruit seedlings should be transplanted when Jamaican jackfruit plants have four Jamaican jackfruit leaves present. Jamaican jackfruit plants with more than 4 Jamaican jackfruit leaves are very difficult to transplant. Artocarpus heterophyllus was featured as Jamaican jackfruit

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